e-Device for the Protection of Agricultural Land from Elephant Attacks in Odisha: A Review

  • Sumit BadotraEmail author
  • S. N. Panda
  • K. S. Bath
  • Prasant Kumar Pattnaik
  • Rinkle Rani
  • Sarvesh Tanwar
  • Amit Sundas
Part of the Studies in Big Data book series (SBD, volume 63)


Handling with wild animal’s attacks is a special challenge for farmers throughout the world. Elephant attacks on agricultural land are one of the biggest social issues in some part of Odisha. They are confronting this issue when the yield is coming to dry and at the pre-collect stage. At that time the fragrance of harvests spread, by noticing the smell, an expansive gathering of elephants in the horticultural land wrecks the whole field and eventually harm crops by running over them, eating and totally vandalizing them. 100–120 elephants by and large lose their lives each year because of yield harm caused by them. Multiple traditional methods are still continued to use but these are both inefficient and insignificant. Therefore, to overcome the situation there has to be some system which can reduce the limitations of traditional methods used till now. So, here in this chapter we presented an approach to reduce crop damage by the elephants on agricultural lands. This proposed work is comprised of Internet of things and cloud-based technology with high-resolution camera to capture the images and process it and compare it with already stored images on cloud with the help of image processing algorithm and after detection it intimates the corresponding authority. This approach system would be fully automatic; it is a low-cost device and affordable for large area coverage and ultimately the lower the loss of lives.


Agricultural land Crops Animal attacks Vandalizing Internet of things Cloud 


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Sulek, J.M., Hensley, R.L.: The relative importance of food, atmosphere, and fairness of wait: the case of a full-service restaurant. Cornell Hotel Restaurant Adm. Q. 45(3), 235–247 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McMichael, A.J., Powles, J.W., Butler, C.D., Uauy, R.: Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. The Lancet 370(9594), 1253–1263 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laha, A.K.: Interval-valued data analysis. Int. J. Bus. Analytics Intell. 3(2) (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Praveen, K.V., Suresh, A., Reddy, A.A., Singh, D.R.: Risks and adaptation strategies in rainfed agriculture in india: an analysis. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 88(6), 958–963 (2018)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bindu, D., Dilip kumar, M.D., Mamtha, B., Prashanth, P.: Prevention of wild animals entering into the agriculture fields. Int. J. Eng. Basic Sci. Manage. Soc. Stud. 1(1), 639–647 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goswami, V.R., Lauretta, M.V., Madhusudan, M.D., Karanth, K.U.: Optimizing individual identification and survey, effort for photographic capture-recapture sampling of species with temporally variable morphological traits. Anim. Conserv. 15(2), 174–183 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santiapillai, C., Wijeyamohan, S., Bandara, G., Athurupana, R., Dissanayake, N., Read, B.: An assessment of the human-elephant conflict in Sri Lanka. Ceylon J. Sci. (Biological Sciences) 39(1), 44–52 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chanchal Kumar Sar: Project: Elephant-Human conflict in Asia report on Orissa–India (Part-I) Liz Claiborne/Art Ortenberg Found. Technical Report, Aug 2009Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Raghavendra, K.J., Suresh, A.: Risk management in rainfed agriculture: an analysis of strategies and adaptations followed by farmers in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 88(6), 895–901 (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nakandala, M.S., Namasivayam, S.S., Chandima, D.P., Udawatta, L.: Detecting wild elephants via WSN for early warning system. In: 2014 7th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAFS), IEEE, pp. 1–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Perera, B.M.A.O.: The Human-Elephant conflict: a review of current status and mitigation methods. Gajah: J. IUCN/SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group 30, 41–45 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pooja, G., Bagali, M.U.: A smart farmland using Raspberry Pi crop vandalization prevention & intrusion detection system. Int. J. Adv. Res. Innovative Ideas Educ. (IJARIIE). 1(5) (2016). ISSN (O)-2395-4396Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Doyle, S., Groo, M., Sampson, C., Songer, M., Jones, M., Leimgruber, P.: Human-Elephant Conflict—What Can We Learn from the News? (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Bandara, R., Tisdell, C.: Asian elephants as agricultural pests: economics of control and compensation in Sri Lanka. Nat. Resour. J., 491–519 (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meredith, R.: The Elephant and The Dragon: The Rise of India and China and What it Means for All of Us, 6th edn., (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mamboleo, A.A., Doscher, C., Paterson, A.: Are Elephants the most disastrous agricultural pests or the agents of ecological restorations? J. Biodivers. Endangered Species 5(1), 1–10 (2017). ISSN: 2332-2543Google Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Pradhan, R.N., Behera, P., Mohapatra, R.K., Sahu, H.K.: Human-Elephant conflict in Dhenkanal Forest Division, Odisha, India. Afr. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 5(4), 193–199 (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mamo, D., Bouer, H., Tesfay, Y.: Crop damage by African elephant’s assessment in Kaftasheraro National Park, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol. 52(2), 138–143 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Das, S.K., Chattopadhyay, S.: Human fatalities from wild elephant attacks-a study of fourteen cases. J. Forensic Legal Med. 18(4), 154–157 (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ardovini, A., Cinque, L., Sangineto, E.: Identifying elephant photos by multi-curve matching. Pattern Recogn. 41(6), 1867–1877 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bakels, J.: Farming the forest edge: perceptions of wildlife among the Kerinci of Sumatra. In: Knight, J. (ed.) Wildlife in Asia: Cultural Perspectives, pp. 147–164. Outledge-Curzon, Taylor & Francis Group, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fernando, P., Kumar, M.A., Williams, A.C., Wikramanayake, E., Aziz, T., Singh, S.M.: Review of Human-Elephant conflict mitigation measures practiced in South Asia, AREAS Technical Support Document Submitted to World Bank. WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature, Vaud, Switzerland (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    King, L.E., Lawrence, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F.: Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. Afr. J. Ecol. 47(2), 131–137 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Loarie, S.R., Aarde, R.J.V., Pimm, S.L.: Fences and artificial water affect African savannah elephant movement patterns. Biol. Conserv. 142(12), 3086–3098 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Venkataraman, A.B., Saandeep, R., Baskaran, N., Roy, M., Madhivanan, A., Sukumar, R.: Using satellite telemetry to mitigate elephant-human conflict: an experiment in northern West Bengal, India. Curr. Sci. 88(11), 1827–1831 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Venter, P.J., Hanekom, J.J.: Automatic detection of African elephant (Loxodontaafricana) infrasonic vocalisations from recordings. Biosyst. Eng. 106(3), 286–294 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vermeulen, C., Lejeune, P., Lisein, J., Sawadogo, P., Bouche, P.: Unmanned aerial survey of elephants. PLoS ONE 8(2), 1–7 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dabarera, R., Rodrigo, R.: Vision based elephant recognition for management and conservation. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAfs ’10), pp. 163–166, Dec 2010Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arun, B., Venkataraman, R., Sandeep, N., Baskaran, M., Roy, A., Madhivanan, Sukumar, R.: Using satellite telemetry to mitigate Elephant–Human conflict: an experiment in Northern West Bengal, India. Curr. Sci. 88(11), 1827–1831 (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lenin, J., Sukumar, R.: Action Plan for the Mitigation of Elephant-Human Conflict in India. Final Report to The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Asian Nature Conservation Foundation, Bangalore, India (2011)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Santhiya, S., et al.: A smart farmland using Raspberry Pi crop prevention and animal intrusion detection system. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol. (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumit Badotra
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. N. Panda
    • 1
  • K. S. Bath
    • 2
  • Prasant Kumar Pattnaik
    • 3
  • Rinkle Rani
    • 4
  • Sarvesh Tanwar
    • 1
  • Amit Sundas
    • 1
  1. 1.Chitkara University Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPunjabIndia
  2. 2.Punjab State Council for Science and TechnologyChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.KIIT UniversityBhubaneshwarIndia
  4. 4.Thapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations