Sino-Soviet Wartime Cooperation and Conflict
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Prior to the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941, China fought the war against Japan with little international assistance. Only aid from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) helped sustain China’s early war efforts. On the one hand, the USSR required that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continue its united front with the Nationalist Party so as to help in the war effort. On the other hand, the USSR both openly and secretly continued to provide both aid to the CCP because it did not want the Nationalists to suppress the CCP. The result was that the USSR could neither satisfy the Nationalist Party nor provide sufficient support to the CCP. The consequences quickly became apparent in party and state relations after the outbreak of the Russo-German War in 1941.