Advertisement

Polyculture Management: A Crucial System for Sustainable Agriculture Development

  • Katarzyna Adamczewska-Sowińska
  • Józef SowińskiEmail author
Chapter
  • 366 Downloads

Abstract

Polyculture is a system for the cultivation of a few crops together, in the same space and at the same time. These methods of crop production have been known and used for thousands of years. Since the 1970s, the system of intensive agriculture has dominated, and the use of environmentally friendly methods for food and feed production has been limited, as has the use of the polyculture system (PS). This paper presents different methods of PS, and special attention is paid to the importance of methods for sustainable agriculture, with a focus on soil protection and the effect of polyculture on soil fertilities. A special issue presented here are living mulches and companion crops (CC) methods in agriculture and horticulture production. Soil surface cover is an important practice for the slowdown of degradation processes to increase soil fertilities. Polyculture and plant cover (companion crop or living mulches) have many environmental benefits: protection of soil against water and wind erosion, stabilization of soil temperature, reservoir of water in the soil profile, effect on soil fertilities, biological activity, and physical soil characteristics. Living mulches or CC are an element of biological control and compete with weeds and reduce pest attacks and disease infection.

Plant-plant interaction provides important information helpful for species selection for different polyculture systems. Various crop interactions are presented, and crop selections both recommended and not recommended for PS are characterized. Special attention is paid to the role of allelochemicals for species selection.

The polyculture system based on commonly known methods of legume and non-legume crop cultivation. The importance of nitrogen fixation phenomena and ways of nitrogen transport from legume crops to non-legume crops is presented.

Better understanding of the polyculture system benefits and popularization of those crop production methods was the main aim of that chapter. More popular should be agriculture system which has more ecological and environmental impact on both crop-crop and crop-environment.

Keywords

Polyculture system Aboveground and belowground competition Environment protection Nitrogen fixation 

Abbreviation

B

Cloddiness index

CC

Companion crops

ΔMWD

Water stability index

LM

Living mulch

MC

Mixed cropping

MWDa

Mean weighed diameter of aggregate (dry method)

MWDg

Mean weighed diameter of aggregate (wet method)

N

Nitrogen

N-NO3¯

Nitrate nitrogen

PS

Polyculture system

S

Misting index

W

Structure index

Wod

Waterproof

References

  1. Abdul-Baki AA, Kotliński S, Kotlińska T (2002a) Vegetable production systems. Veg Crops Res Bull 57:11–21Google Scholar
  2. Abdul-Baki AA, Teasdale JR, Goth RW, Haynes KG (2002b) Marketable yields of fresh-market tomatoes grown in plastic and hairy vetch mulches. Hort Sci 37(6):878–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adamczewska-Sowińska K (2004) Living mulches in tomato and pepper production and their residual effects on celeriac and carrot yields. Zesz Nauk AR we Wrocławiu 484, Rozprawy CCXIII (in Polish, abstract in English)Google Scholar
  4. Adamczewska-Sowińska K, Kołota E (2002) Living mulches in field tomato production. Folia Hort 14(1):45–51Google Scholar
  5. Adamczewska-Sowińska K, Kołota E, Winiarska S (2009) Living mulches in field cultivation of vegetables. Veg Crops Res Bull 70(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akanvou R, Kropff MJ, Bastiaans L, Becker M (2002) Evaluating the use of two contrasting legume species as relay intercrop in upland rice cropping systems. Field Crops Res 74:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altieri MA, Nicholls CI (2012) Agroecology scaling up for food sovereignty and resiliency. In: Lichtfouse E (eds) Sustain Agric Rev 11:1–29Google Scholar
  8. Askegaard M, Eriksen J (2008) Residual effect and leaching of N and K in cropping systems with clover and ryegrass catch crops on a coarse sand. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badri DV, Vivanco JM (2009) Regulation and function of root exudates. Plant Cell Environ 32:666–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bais HP, Weir TL, Perry LG, Gilroy S, Vivanco JM (2006) The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:233–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldy C, Stigter CJ (1997) Agrometeorology of multiple cropping in warm climates. INRA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. Balvanera P, Pfisterer AB, Buchmann N, He JS, Nakashizuka T, Raffaelli D, Schmid B (2006) Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecol Lett 9:1146–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bargaz A, Isaac ME, Jensen ES, Carlsson G (2015) Intercropping of faba bean with wheat under low water availability promotes faba bean nodulation and root growth in deeper soil layers, procedia. Environ Sci 29:111–112Google Scholar
  14. Baumann DT, Kropff MJ, Bastiaans L (2000) Intercropping leeks to suppress weeds. Blackwell Sci. Ltd. Weed Res 40:359–374Google Scholar
  15. Beets WC (1982) Multiple cropping and tropical farming system, grower. London, Britain, and West Views Press, Colorado, p 156Google Scholar
  16. Belz RG (2007) Allelopathy in crop/weed interactions e an update. Pest Manag Sci 63:308–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben-Hammouda M, Ghorbal H, Kremer R, Oueslati O (2001) Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, EDP Sciences 21(1):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biedrzycki ML, Jilany TA, Dudley SA, Bais HP (2010) Root exudates mediate kin recognition in plants. Commun Integr Biol 3:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blanco-Canqui H, Lal R (2010) Cropping systems. In: Principles of soil conservation and management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 165–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Błażewicz–Woźniak M, Mitura R (2004) Wpływ uprawy konserwującej na zawartość składników mineralnych w glebie i korzeniach pietruszki. Rocz AR Poznań 356:3–11. (in polish)Google Scholar
  21. Bonanomi G, Sicurezza MG, Caporaso S, Assunta E, Mazzoleni S (2006) Phytotoxicity dynamics of decaying plantmaterials. New Phytol 169:571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyd NS, Gordon R, Asiedu SK, Martin RC (2000) The effect of living mulches on tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Biol Agric Hortic 18(3):203–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brainard DC, Bellinder RR (2004) Weed suppression in a broccoli-winter rye intercropping system. Weed Sci 52:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brooker RW (2006) Plant–plant interactions and environmental change. New Phytol 171:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brooker RW, Bennett AE, Cong W, Daniell TJ, George TS, Hallett PD, Hawes C, Iannetta PP, Jones HG, Karley AJ, Li L, McKenzie BM, Pakeman RJ, Paterson E, Schöb C, Shen J, Squire G, Watson CA, Zhang C, Zhang F, Zhang J, White PJ (2015) Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. New Phytol 206:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bruns HA (2012) Concepts in crop rotations. Agric Sci, Godwin Aflakpui (Ed.), InTechopen.com, available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/agricultural-science/conceptsin-crop-rotation/ dated 03/05/2018
  27. Büchi L, Gebhard CA, Liebisch F, Sinaj S, Ramseier H, Charles R (2015) Accumulation of biologically fixed nitrogen by legumes cultivated as cover crops in Switzerland. Plant Soil 393:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bullock DG (1992) Crop rotation. Crit Rev Plant Sci 11(4):309–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carof M, de Tourdonnet SP, Saulas P, Le Floch D, Roger-Estrade J (2007) Undersowing wheat with different living mulches in a no-till system. II. Competition for light and nitrogen. Agron Sustain Dev 27:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chalk PM, Peoples MB, Mcneill AM, Boddey RM, Unkovich MJ, Gardener MJ, Silva CF, Chen D (2014) Methodologies for estimating nitrogen transfer between legumes and companion species in agro-ecosystems: a review of 15N-enriched techniques. Soil Biol Biochem 73:10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chapagain T, Riseman A (2014) Barley–pea intercropping: effects on land productivity, carbon and nitrogen transformations. Field Crop Res 166:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chapagain T, Riseman A (2015) Nitrogen and carbon transformations, water use efficiency and ecosystem productivity in monocultures and wheat-bean intercropping systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 101:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chataway RG, Cooper JE, Orr WN, Cowan RT (2011) The role of tillage, fertiliser and forage species in sustaining dairying based on crops in southern Queensland 2. Double-crop and summer sole-crop systems. Anim Prod Sci 51:904–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cookson WR, Murphy DV, Roper MM (2008) Characterizing the relationships between soil organic matter components and microbial function and composition along a tillage disturbance gradient. Soil Biol and Biochem 40:763–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Corre-Hellou G, Fustec J, Crozat Y (2006) Interspecific competition for soil N and its interaction with N-2 fixation, leaf expansion and crop growth in pea-barley intercrops. Plant Soil 282:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cu STT, Hutson J, Schuller KA (2005) Mixed culture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) improves the growth and phosphorus nutrition of the wheat. Plant Soil 272:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cutforth HW, McGinn SM, McPhee KE, Miller PR (2007) Adaptation of pulse crops to the changing climate of the Northern Great Plains. Agron J 99:1684–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Czarnota MA, Paul RN, Weston LA, Duke SO (2003) Anatomy of sorgoleone secreting root hairs of Sorghum species. Int J Plant Sci 164(6):861–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Damour G, Garnier E, Navas ML, Dorel M, Risède JM (2015) Using functional traits to assess the services provided by cover plants: a review of potentialities in banana cropping systems. Adv Agron 134:81–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Daudin D, Sierra J (2008) Spatial and temporal variation of below-ground N transfer from a leguminous tree to an associated grass in an agroforestry system. Agric Ecosyst Environ 126:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Debaeke P, Pellerin S, Scopel E (2017) Climate-smart cropping systems for temperate and tropical agriculture: mitigation, adaptation and trade-offs. Cah Agric 26 pp 12 www.cahiersagricultures.fr CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deguchi S, Shimazaki Y, Uozumi S, Tawaraya K, Kawamoto H, Tanaka O (2007) White clover living mulch increases the yield of silage corn via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization. Plant Soil 291:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deguchi S, Uozumi S, Touno E, Tawaraya K (2010) Potassium nutrient status of corn declined in white clover living mulch. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:848–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Depuydt S (2014) Arguments for and against self and non-self root recognition in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dewar JA (2007) Perennial polyculture farming. Technical report, RAND Corporation occasional paper series. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2007/RAND_OP179.pdf/ dated 30/06/2018
  46. Doré T, Sene M, Pellissier F, Gallet C (2004) An agronomic view of allelopathic phenomena. Cah Agric 13:249–256Google Scholar
  47. Evans J, Scott G, Lemerle D, Kaiser A, Orchard B, Murray GM, Armstrong EL (2003) Impact of legume ‘break’ crops on the yield and grain quality of wheat and relationship with soil mineral N and crop N content. Aust J Agric Res 54:777–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Falik O, Reides P, Gersani M, Novoplansky A (2003) Self/non-self discrimination in roots. J Ecol 91:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Farooq M, Jabran K, Cheema ZA, Wahidb A, Siddiquec K (2011) The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management. Pest Manag Sci 67(5):493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fustec J, Lesuffleur F, Mahieu S, Cliquet JB (2010) Nitrogen rhizodeposition of legumes. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garrity D, Dixon J, Boffa JM (2012) Understanding African farming systems: science and policy Implications. http://aciar.gov.au/aifsc/sites/default/files/images/understanding_african_farming_systems_report_for_aifsc_conference.pdf/ dated 03/05/2018
  52. Ghafarbi SP, Hassannejad S, Lotfi R (2012) Allelopathic effects of wheat seed extracts on seed and seedling growth of eight selected weed species. Int J Agric Crop Sci 19:1452–1457Google Scholar
  53. Głąb L, Sowiński J, Bough R, Dayan FE (2017) Allelopathic potential of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in weed control: a comprehensive review. Adv Agron 145:43–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gliessman SR (1986) Plant interactions in multiple cropping systens. In: Francis CA (ed) Mubiple crcpping systems. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, pp 82–95Google Scholar
  55. Graham PH, Vance CP (2003) Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiol 131(3):872–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gylfadóttir T, Helgadóttir Á, Høgh-Jensen H (2007) Consequences of including adapted white clover in Northern European grassland: transfer and deposition of nitrogen. Plant Soil 297:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hart JP (2008) Evolving the three sisters: the changing histories of maize, bean, and squash in New York and the greater northeast. Current northeast Paleobotany II. New York state museum bulletin 512:87–99. http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/publications/bulletins/ dated 15/04/2018
  58. Hartwig NL, Ammon HU (2002) Cover crops and living mulches. Weed Sci 50(6):688–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. He X, Xu M, Qiu GY, Zhou J (2009) Use of 15N stable isotope to quantify nitrogen transfer between mycorrhizal plants. J Plant Ecol 2:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hernanz JL, Sanchez-Giron V, Navarrete L (2009) Soil carbon sequestration and stratification in a cereal/leguminous crop rotation with three tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 133:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hiltbrunner J, Liedgens M (2008) Performance of winter wheat varieties in white clover living mulch. Biol Agric Hortic 26:85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hiltbrunner J, Streit B, Liedgens M (2007) Are seeding densities an opportunity to increase grain yield of winter wheat in a living mulch of white clover? Field Crops Res 102:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hinsinger P, Betencourt E, Bernard L, Brauman A, Plassard C, Shen J, Tang X, Zhang F (2011) P for two, sharing a scarce resource: soil phosphorus acquisition in the rhizosphere of intercropped species. Plant Physiol 156:1078–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hofmann RW, Lin W, Stilwell SA, Lucas RJ (2007) Comparison of drought resistance in strawberry clover and white clover. Proceed New Zealand Grassland Assoc 69:219–222Google Scholar
  65. Ikerd J (2010) Industrialization of agriculture; consequences and challenges of sustainability. Nuffield Scholars Program 2010 Conference, Washington, DC, March 8, 2010. http://web.missouri.edu/ikerdj/papers/Nuffield%20-%20Industrial%20Agriculture.htm/ dated 30/06/2018
  66. Jędrszczyk E, Poniedziałek M (2009) Influence of living mulches on selected soil properties and weed infestation in sweet corn cultivation. Zesz Probl Post Nauk Rol 539:265–272. (in Polish with English summary)Google Scholar
  67. Jensen ES (1996) Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea. Soil Biol Biochem 28(2):159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jensen ES, Peoples MB, Boddey RM, Gresshoff PM, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Alves BJR, Morrison MJ (2011) Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:329–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kankanen H, Eriksson C (2007) Effects of undersown crops on soil mineral N and grain yield of spring barley. Europ J Agron 27:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirkegaard JA, Christen O, Krupinsky J, Layzell D (2008) Break crop benefits in temperate wheat production. Field Crops Res 107:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Knörzer H, Graeff-Hönninger S, Guo B, Wang P, Claupein W (2009) The rediscovery of intercropping in China: a traditional cropping system for future Chinese agriculture – a review. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Climate change, intercropping, pest control and beneficial microorganisms, sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 13–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kołota E, Adamczewska-Sowińska K (2013) Living mulches in vegetable crops production: perspectives and limitations (a reviev). Acta Sci Pol Hortorum Cultus 12(6):127–142Google Scholar
  73. Kumar V, Brainard DC, Bellinder RR (2009) Suppression of Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii) by buckwheat residues: role of allelopathy. Weed Sci 57(1):66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Latati M, Blavet D, Alkama N, Laoufi H, Drevon JJ, Gérard F, Pansu M, Ounane SM (2014) The intercropping cowpea-maize improves soil phosphorus availability and maize yields in an alkaline soil. Plant Soil 385:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Latati M, Bargaz A, Belarbi B, Lazali M, Benlahrech S, Tellah S, Kaci G, Drevon JJ, Ounane SM (2016) The intercropping common bean with maize improves the rhizobial efficiency, resource use and grain yield under low phosphorus availability. Eur J Agron 72:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leary J, De Frank J (2000) Living mulches for organic farming system. Hort Technol 10(4):692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lesuffleur F, Cliquet JB (2010) Characterization of root amino acid exudation in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Plant Soil 333:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lesuffleur F, Paynel F, Bataillé MP, Le Deunff E, Cliquet JB (2007) Root amino acid exudation: measurement of high efflux rates of glycine and serine from six different plant species. Plant Soil 294:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lesuffleur F, Salon C, Jeudy C, Cliquet JB (2013) Use of a 15N2 labelling technique to estimate exudation by white clover and transfer to companion ryegrass of symbiotically fixed N. Plant Soil 369:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Li W (2001) Agro-ecological farming systems in China. Man and the biosphere series, ed. by Jeffers JNR:26Google Scholar
  81. Li L, Li SM, Sun JH, Zhou LL, Bao XG, Zhang HG, Zhang F (2007) Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus deficient soils. PNAS 104(27):11192–11196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Li ZH, Wang Q, Ruan X, Pan CD, Jiang DA (2010) Phenolics and plant allelopathy. Molecules 15(12):8933–8952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Liang YL, Zhang CE, Guo DW (2002) Mulch types and their benefit in cropland ecosystems on the loess plateau in China. J Plant Nutr 25(5):945–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lithourgidis AS, Vlachostergios DN, Dordas CA, Damalas CA (2011) Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercropping systems. Eur J Agron 34:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Liu TD, Song FB (2012) Maize photosynbthesis and microclimate within the canopies at grain-filling stage in response to narrow-wide row planting patterns. Photosynthetica 50:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lu Y, Watkins K, Teasdale JR, Abdul-Baki AA (2000) Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Rev Int 16:121–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lucero DW, Grieu P, Guckert A (1999) Effects of water deficit and plant interaction on morphological growth parameters and yield of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mixtures. Eur J Agron 11:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mahapatra SC (2011) Study of grass-legume intercropping system in terms of competition indices and monetary advantage index under acid lateritic soil of India. AJEA 1(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Meng L, Zhang A, Wang F, Han X, Wang D, Li S (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium facilitate nitrogen uptake and transfer in soybean/maize intercropping system. Front Plant Sci 6:1–10Google Scholar
  90. Moyer-Henry KA, Burton JW, Israel DW, Rufty TW (2006) Nitrogen transfer between plants: a 15N natural abundance study with crop and weed species. Plant Soil 282:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nemecek T, von Richthofen J-S, Dubois G, Casta P, Charles R, Pahl H (2008) Environmental impacts of introducing grain legumes into European crop rotations. Eur J Agron 28:380–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nygren P, Leblanc HA (2015) Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system. Tree Physiol 35(2):134–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Okigbo BN, Greenland DJ (1976) Intercropping Systems in Tropical Africa in multiple cropping. ASA Spec Publ 27:63–101Google Scholar
  94. Orr CH, Leifert C, Cummings SP, Cooper JM (2012) Impacts of organic and conventional crop management on diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria are subsidiary to temporal effects. PLoS One 7(12):e52891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Paynel F, Lesuffleur F, Bigot J, Diquélou S, Cliquet JB (2008) A study of 15N transfer between legumes and grasses. Agron Sustain Dev 28:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pelosi C, Bertrand M, Roger-Estrade J (2009) Earthworm community in conventional, organic and direct seeding with living mulch cropping systems. Agron Sustain Dev 29:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peoples MB, Brockwell J, Herridge DF, Rochester IJ, Alves BJR, Urquiaga S, Boddey RM, Dakora FD, Bhattarai S, Maskey SL, Sampet C, Rerkasem B, Khan DF, Hauggaard-Nielsenm H, Jensen ES (2009) The contributions of nitrogen fixing crop legumes to the productivity of agricultural systems. Symbiosis 48:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pirhofer-Walzl K, Rasmussen J, Høgh-Jensen H, Eriksen J, Søegaard K, Rasmussen J (2012) Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland. Plant Soil 350:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pleasant M (2006) The science behind the three sisters mound system: an agronomic assessment of an indigenous agricultural system in the Northeast. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of maize multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, p 672Google Scholar
  100. Pleasant M (2016) Food yields and nutrient analyses of the three sisters: a Haudenosaunee cropping system. Ethnobiology Letters 7(1):87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Plucknett DL, Smith NJH (1986) Historical perspectives on multiple cropping. Multiple cropping systems (Francis C.A., ed.). Macmillan Publishing Company, pp 20–39Google Scholar
  102. Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor V, Cochrane K, Howden SM, Iqbal MM, Lobell DB, Travasso MI (2014) Food security and food production systems. In: Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 485–533Google Scholar
  103. Preissel S, Reckling M, Schläfke N, Zander P (2015) Magnitude and farm-economic value of grain legume pre-crop benefits in Europe: a review. Field Crop Res 175:64–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Prithiviraj B, Paschke MW, Vivanco JM (2007) Root communication: the role of root exudates. Encycl Plant Crop Sci:1–4Google Scholar
  105. Ramseier H. Legume screening for cover crops: weed suppression, biomass development and nitrogen fixation. https://www.hafl.bfh.ch/fileadmin/docs/Forschung_Dienstleistungen/Agrarwissenschaften/Pflanzen/Legume_screening_for_cover_crops.pdf/ dated 30/06/2018
  106. Rangarajan A (2012) Crop rotation effects on soil fertility and plant nutrition. Chapter in. Production of Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual was made possible with funding from Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE). https://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/Books/Crop-Rotation-on-Organic-Farms/Text-Version/Physical-and-Biological-Processes-In-Crop-Production/Crop-Rotation-Effects-on-Soil-Fertility-and-Plant-Nutrition/ dated 17/06/2018
  107. Rao VN, Meinke H, Craufurd PQ, Parsons D, Kropff MJ, Anten NPR, Wani SP, Rego TJ (2015) Strategic double cropping on vertisols: a viable rainfed cropping option in the Indian SAT to increase productivity and reduce risk. Eur J Agron 62:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rasmussen J, Søegaard K, Pirhofer-Walzl K, Eriksen J (2012) N2-fixation and residual N effect of four legume species and four companion grass species. Eur J Agron 36:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rasmussen J, Gylfadóttir T, Loges R, Eriksen J, Helgadóttir A (2013) Spatial and temporal variation in N transfer in grass-white clover mixtures at three Northern European field sites. Soil Biol Biochem 57:654–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sainju UM, Singh BP, Whitenhead WF (2002) Long term effects of tillage, cover crops and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia USA. Soil Til Res 63:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sarr B (2012) Present and future climate change in the semi-arid region of West Africa: a crucial input for practical adaptation in agriculture. Atmos Sci Lett 13:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schmidt O, Clements RO, Donaldson G (2003) Why do cereal-legume intercrops support large earthworm populations. Appl Soil Ecol 22(2):181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Semchenko M, Saar S, Lepik A (2014) Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioral changes. New Phytol 204:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sobkowicz P, Podgórska-Lesiak M (2007) Experiments with crop mixtures: interactions, designs and interpretation. EJPAU 10(2). http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume10/issue2/abs-22.html/
  115. Soldevilla-Martinez M, Martin-Lammerding D, Tenorio JL, Walter I, Quemada M, Lizaso JI (2013) Simulating improved combinations tillage-rotation under dryland conditions. Span J Agric Res 11:820–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Song YN, Zhang FS, Marschner P, Fan FL, Gao HM, Bao XG, Sun JH, Li L (2006) Effect of intercropping on crop yield and chemical and microbiological properties in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Biol Fertil Soils 43:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Song YN, Zhang FS, Marschner P, Fan FL, Gao HM, Bao XG, Sun JH, Li L (2007) Effect of intercropping on crop yield and chemical and microbiological properties in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Biol Fertil Soils 43:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sowiński J (2004) The effects of tillage method and nitrogen rates on winter wheat harvested for silage and grain. Zesz Nauk AR. Rozprawy CCXVI 490Google Scholar
  119. Sowiński J (2005) The influence of winter wheat and white clover bi-cropping system on white clover sward parameters. XX International Grassland Congress Dublin Ireland 26 June-1 July 2005, p 385Google Scholar
  120. Sowiński J (2014) The effect of companion crops management on biological weed control in the seeding year of lucerne. Biol Agric Hort 30(2):97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sowiński J, Wojciechowski W (2018) Nitrogen efficiency of winter wheat on different tillage methods for whole crops silage. Fresenius Environ Bull 27(1):230–235Google Scholar
  122. Steenhoudt O, Vanderleyden J (2000) Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:487–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sturite I, Henriksen TM, Breland TA (2007) Winter losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from Italian ryegrass, meadow fescue and white clover in a northern temperate climate. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120:280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thilakarathna RMMS, Papadopoulos YA, Rodd AV (2012) Characterizing nitrogen transfer from red clover populations to companion bluegrass under field conditions. Can J Plant Sci 92:1163–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Thilakarathna MS, McElroy MS, Chapagain T, Papadopoulos YA, Raizada MN (2016) Belowground nitrogen transfer from legumes to non-legumes under managed herbaceous cropping systems. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 36:58. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13593-016-0403-9/
  126. Thomsen IK, Christensen BT (2004) Yields of wheat and soil carbon and nitrogen contents following long-term incorporation of barley straw and ryegrass catch crops. Soil Use Manag 20:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thorsted MD, Olesen JE, Weiner J (2006a) Mechanical control of clover improves nitrogen supply and growth of wheat in winter wheat/white clover intercropping. Eur J Agron 24:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thorsted MD, Olesen JE, Weiner J (2006b) Width of clover strips and wheat rows influence grain yield in winter wheat/white clover intercropping. Field Crops Res 95:280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Beforta BL (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(50):20260–20264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tittonell P (2015) Agroecology is climate smart. In: climate smart agriculture 2015: global science conference 3, Montpellier (France), p 19Google Scholar
  131. Tonitto C, David MB, Drinkwater LE (2006) Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: a meta-analysis of crop yield and N dynamics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vadez V, Berger JD, Warkentin T, Asseng S, Ratnakumar P, Rao KPC, Gaur PM, Munier-Jolain N, Larmure A, Voisin AS, Sharma HC, Pande S, Sharma M, Krishnamurthy L, Zaman MA (2012) Adaptation of grain legumes to climate change: a review. Agron Sust Dev 32:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vance CP, Graham PH, Allan DL (2000) Biological nitrogen fixation: phosphorus – a critical future need? In: Pedrosa FO, Hungria M, Yates G, Newton WE (eds) Nitrogen fixation: from molecules to crop productivity, current plant science and biotechnology in agriculture. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 509–514Google Scholar
  134. Vandermeer J (1989) The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vandermeer J, Van Noordwijk M, Anderson J, Ong C, Perfecto I (1998) Global change and multispecies ecosystems: concepts and issues. Agric Ecosyst Environ 67:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Waha K, Müller C, Bondeau A, Dietrich JP, Kurukulasuriya P, Heinke J, Lotze-Campen H (2013) Adaptation to climate change through the choice of cropping system and sowing date in sub-Saharan Africa. Glob Environ Chang 23:130–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wichern F, Eberhardt E, Mayer J, Joergensen RG, Müller T (2008) Nitrogen rhizodeposition in agricultural crops: methods, estimates and future prospects. Soil Biol Biochem 40:30–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wojciechowski W, Adamczewska-Sowińska K, Krygier M (2012) Effect of living mulches on selected soil structure indicators in eggplant cultivation. Veg Crops Res Bull 77:49–59Google Scholar
  139. Xiao YB, Li L, Zhang FS (2004) Effect of root contact on interspecific competition and N transfer between wheat and fabacean using direct and indirect N-15 techniques. Plant Soil 262:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Xu Z, Ma G, Shah RP, Qin FF (2008) Japanese organic tomato intercropped with living turfgrass mulch. Cultivating the future based on science. Volume 1: Organic Crop Production. Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR). Modena, Italy, 18–20 June 2008, pp 619–623Google Scholar
  141. Xu Z, Yu Z, Zhao J (2013) Theory and application for the promotion of wheat production in China: past, present and future. J Sci Food Agric 93:2339–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yang F, Huang S, Gao RC, Liu WG, Yong TW, Wang XC, Wu XL, Yang WY (2014) Growth of soybean seedlings in relay strip intercropping systems in relation to light quantity and red far-red ratio. Field Crops Res 155:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yong T, Liu X, Yang F Song C, Wang X, Liu W, Su B, Zhou L, Yang W (2015) Characteristics of nitrogen uptake, use and transfer in a wheat-maize-soybean relay intercropping system. Plant Prod Sci 18:388–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zak DR, Holmes WE, White DC, Peacock AD, Tilman D (2003) Plant diversity, soil microbial communities and ecosystem function: are there any links? Ecology 84:2042–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Adamczewska-Sowińska
    • 1
  • Józef Sowiński
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Horticulture DepartmentWroclaw University of Environmental and Life SciencesWroclawPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Agroecology and Plant ProductionWroclaw University of Environmental and Life SciencesWroclawPoland

Personalised recommendations