Choroidal Folds

  • Müller Gonçalves UriasEmail author
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)


The fundus image of “peculiar lines in the choroid”—as Nettleship first described in 1884 (Squirrell 2006)—the so-called choroidal folds (Fig. 3.1) are anatomically undulations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch’s membrane and the inner portion of the choriocapillaris—which may or may not be involved. If retina is involved, it is called chorioretinal folds. It differs from retinal folds since with retinal folds only neurosensory retina is involved and have a different presentation (Jaworski et al. 1999; Murdoch and Merriman 2002; Musetti et al. 2014).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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