Retinal Diseases in Pregnancy

  • Thaís Quisia Lima Gaspar
  • Eduardo Tomazoni
  • Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)


Pregnancy is a condition associated with high levels of estrogens that can cause a rapid progression of retinopathy in susceptible women or potentiate previous retinal diseases (Mallika et al. 2010, p. 1). Blood pressure typically declines early in pregnancy, peaks in the second trimester, with high levels of cortisol associated, and in the third trimester decreases slightly reaching supernormal levels. Another physiological alteration of pregnancy is the state of relative hypercoagulability of the pregnant woman, making her susceptible to the formation of pathological clots. These alterations can cause new retinal diseases or exacerbate pre-existing retinal disorders (Rosenthal and Johnson 2018, p. 2). Central serous chorioretinopathy may worsen with pre-eclampsia or occur without pre-eclampsia, probably because of increased levels of catecholamines during pregnancy. Increased levels of angiogenic factors also may contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularization (Errera et al. 2013, p. 5).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thaís Quisia Lima Gaspar
    • 1
  • Eduardo Tomazoni
    • 1
  • Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Ophthalmology, Retina FellowshipVisum RetinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologySaint Louis University School of MedicineSaint LouisUSA

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