• Sonny Shiu-Hing LoEmail author
  • Steven Chung-Fun Hung
  • Jeff Hai-Chi Loo


The ways in which China’s penetrative politics is conducted in Hong Kong prove that, through the mobilization and coordination of Beijing’s agents in the territory, Hong Kong’s “one country, two systems” is actually “one country, two mixed systems” because the political dynamics of mainland China are intertwined with the political development of the special administrative region. The pro-Beijing political parties, trade unions, women groups, youth groups, religious groups, district federations and kaifong associations are the de facto transmission belts of the Chinese Communist Party in the HKSAR. As such, the two political systems of mainland China and Hong Kong are interacting with each other. It is practically impossible to separate the two systems, politically speaking.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonny Shiu-Hing Lo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven Chung-Fun Hung
    • 2
  • Jeff Hai-Chi Loo
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Hong Kong, SPACENorth PointHong Kong
  2. 2.Education University of Hong KongNew TerritoriesHong Kong
  3. 3.Lingnan UniversityTuen MunHong Kong

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