The Concerns for Global Sustainability of Freshwater Ecosystems

  • Humaira Qadri
  • Rouf Ahmad Bhat


Water is a fundamental compound for survival of life on earth. Its unique physico-chemical properties are a hinge for biochemical metabolism in any form of biota. Environmental pollution and issues has degraded the quality of freshwater and depletes its resources from finite to limited quantity. Preservation of freshwater sources is nowadays the most pressing environmental concern due to ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. For the global sustainability of freshwater ecosystems, it becomes imperative to adopt ecologically sound restoration and management practices for the sustainability of life on earth.


Pollution Freshwater biota Restoration Sustainability Heavy metal Pesticides Wastewater 


  1. Abel, P. D. (1996). Water pollution biology (2nd ed., p. 29). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal, S. K. (2009a). Water pollution (p. 54). New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal, S. K. (2009b). Water pollution (p. 33). New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Agouridis, C. T., Workman, S. R., Warner, R. C., & Jennings, G. D. (2005). Livestock grazing management impacts on stream water quality: A review. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 41, 591–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad, S. M., Yusafzai, F., Bari, T., et al. (2014). Assessment of heavy metals in surface water of River Panjkora Dir Lower, KPK Pakistan. Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 5, 144–152.Google Scholar
  6. Ahmed, T., Scholz, F., Al-Faraj, W., et al. (2013). Water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health: A review for generalists with particular reference to Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 1–16.Google Scholar
  7. Akinbo, M., & Tawari-Fufeyin, P. (2014). Physical, chemical and biological parameters of water from medical waste dumpsites in South-Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 11(04), 83–88.Google Scholar
  8. Boberg, J. (2005). Freshwater availability, liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources (pp. 15–28). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brodie, J. E., & Mitchell, A. W. (2005). Nutrients in Australian tropical rivers: Changes with agricultural development and implications for receiving environments. Marine and Freshwater Research, 56, 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chowdhury, S., Annabelle, K., & Klaus, F. Z. (2015). Arsenic contamination of drinking water and mental health, ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy, No. 222, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Bonn.Google Scholar
  11. Christensen, B. T., Lauridesen, T. L., Ravn, H. W., & Bayley, M. (2005). A comparison of feeding efficiency and swimming ability of Daphnia magna exposed to cypermethrin. Aquatic Toxicology, 73, 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cold, A., & Forbes, V. E. (2004). Consequences of a short pulse of pesticide exposure for survival and reproduction of Gammarus pulex. Aquatic Toxicology, 67, 287–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., et al. (2010). Sick water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. Arendal: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  14. Corsolini, S., Romeo, T., Ademolla, N., Greco, S., & Focardi, S. (2002). POPs in key species of marine Antarctic ecosystem. Microchemical Journal, 73, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie, J., Joshua, G. Z., & Katherine, M. (2013). Something in the water: Contaminated drinking water and infant health. Canadian Journal of Economics, 46(3), 791–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dudal, R. (1981). An evaluation of conservation needs. In R. P. C. Morgan (Ed.), Soil conservation, problems and prospects. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Environmental Fate of Pesticides. (2015). Pesticide Wise. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  18. EPA. (2003). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Nonpoint Source Control Branch (4503T) 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460.Google Scholar
  19. EPA. (2011). U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Introduction to the National Pre-treatment Program.
  20. Gambhir, R. S., Kapoor, V., Nirola, A., Sohi, R., & Vikram, B. (2012). Pollution: Impact of pollutants and new promising techniques in purification process. Journal of Human Ecology, 37(2), 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilliom, R. J. (2007). Pesticides in U.S. streams and groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 3407–3413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Halder, J. N., & Islam, M. N. (2005). Water pollution and its impact on the human health. Journal of Environment and Human, 2(1), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanazato, T. (2001). Pesticide effects on freshwater zooplankton: An ecological perspective. Environmental Pollution, 112, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haseena, M., Malik, F. M., Javed, A., Arshad, S., Asif, N., Zulfiqar, S., & Hanif, J. (2017). Water pollution and human health. Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, 01(03), 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haygarth, P. M., Wood, F. L., Heathwaite, A. L., & Butler, P. J. (2005). Phosphorus dynamics observed through increasing scales in a nested headwater-to-river channel study. Science of the Total Environment, 344, 83–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Нomas, R. S. (2000). Microbes and urban watersheds: Concentrations, sources, & pathways. Ellicott City: Centre for Watershed Protection.Google Scholar
  27. Hong, C.-Y., Chang, H., & Chung, E.-S. (2018). Resident perceptions of urban stream restoration and water quality in South Korea. River Research and Applications, 34(5), 481–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hwang, S. J., Lee, S. W., & Yoo, B. (2014). Ecological conservation and the restoration of freshwater environments in Korea. Paddy and Water Environment, 12(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jabeen, S. Q., Mehmood, S., & Tariq, B. (2011). Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, 23(1), 47–50.Google Scholar
  30. James, C. S., Fisher, J., Russell, V., Collings, S., & Moss, B. (2005). Nitrate availability and hydrophyte species richness in shallow lakes. Freshwater Biology, 50, 1049–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jumbe, A. S., & Nandini, N. (2009). Heavy metals analysis and sediment quality values in urban lakes. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5, 678–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khan, M. A., & Ghouri, A. M. (2011). Environmental pollution: Its effects on life and its remedies. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce, 2(2), 276–285.Google Scholar
  33. Krishnan, S., & Indu, R. (2006). Groundwater contamination in India: Discussing physical processes, health and socio behavioral dimensions. IWMI-Tata, Water Policy Research Programmes, Anand, India.Google Scholar
  34. Letchinger, M. (2000). Pollution and water quality, neighbourhood water quality assessment. Project oceanography.Google Scholar
  35. Mani, D., & Kumar, C. (2014). Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: An overview with special reference to phytoremediation. International journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11, 843–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McKinney, M. L., & Schoch, R. M. (2003). Environmental science: Systems and solutions. London: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  37. Mehaffey, M. H., Nash, M. S., Wade, T. G., Ebert, D. W., Jones, K. B., & Rager, A. (2005). Linking land cover and water quality in New York City’s water supply watersheds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 107, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mishra, R. K., & Dubey, S. C. (2015). Fresh water availability and its global challenge. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention Research & Development, 2(4), 2349–6185.Google Scholar
  39. Moss, B., et al. (2004). Continental-scale patterns of nutrient and fish effects on shallow lakes: Synthesis of a pan-European mesocosm experiment. Freshwater Biology, 49, 1633–1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nel, L. H., & Markotter, W. (2009). New and emerging waterborne infectious diseases. Encyclopedia of Life Support System, 1, 1–10.Google Scholar
  41. NOFA Interstate Council. (2004) Natural farmer. Ecologically sound nitrogen management. Mark Schonbeck.Google Scholar
  42. Norazian, M. N., Kamarudin, M. N., Azhar, S. S., Ragunathan, K., Nihla, A., & Khairuddin, M. I. (2009). Water pollution. In Introduction to environmental engineering. Pauh Putra Campus, Arau: Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Publication.Google Scholar
  43. Oana, V., Oroian, V. I., & Fleșeriu, A. (2010). Types of water pollution: Point source and nonpoint source aquaculture, aquarium, Conservation & Legislation. International Journal of the Bioflux Society, 3(5), 393–395.Google Scholar
  44. Obasohan, E. E., Agbonlahor, D. E., & Obano, E. E. (2010). Water pollution: A review of microbial quality and health concerns of water, sediment and fish in the aquatic system. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(4), 423–427.Google Scholar
  45. Olson, B. M., Miller, J. J., Rodvang, S. J., & Yanke, J. L. (2005). Soil and groundwater quality under a cattle feedlot in southern Alberta. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 40, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oroian, I., & Viman, O. (2010). Damaging effects of overall water pollution. Environment, 3, 203–207.Google Scholar
  47. Owa, F. D. (2014). Water pollution: Sources, effects, control and management. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Rome: MCSER Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pandey, S. (2006). Water pollution and health. Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ), 4(1), 128–134.Google Scholar
  49. Pandey, S., Singh, A., & Mishra, S. (2017). Dynamism of structure and properties of water molecule. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 3(1), 2395–2436.Google Scholar
  50. Paranjape, V. N. (2013). Environmental law (p. 117). Allahabad: Central Law Agency.Google Scholar
  51. Paz-Alberto, A. M., & Sigua, G. C. (2013). Phytoremediation: A green technology to remove environmental pollutants. American Journal of Climate Change, 2, 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pretty, J. N., Mason, C. F., Nedwell, D. B., & Hine, R. E. (2003). Environmental costs of freshwater eutrophication in England and Wales. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raja, G., & Venkatesan, P. (2010). Assessment of groundwater pollution and its impact in and around Punnam Area of Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India. E-Journal of Chemistry, 7(2), 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ramachandra, T. V., Rajashekariah, K., & Ahalya, N. (2002). Status conservation and management of wetlands. Bangalore: Allied Publishers Pvt Ltd.Google Scholar
  55. Rao, K. R. (2001). Radioactive waste: The problem and its management. Current Science, 81(12), 1534–1546.Google Scholar
  56. Rekha, P., Raj, D. S., Aparna, C., Bindu, V. H., & Anjaneyulu, Y. (2005). Bioremediation of contaminated lake sediments and evaluation of maturity indices as indicators of compost stability. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2(2), 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Revenga, C., & Mock, G. (2000). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: Freshwater systems (pp. 1–78). Washington, DC: World Resource Institute.Google Scholar
  58. Rosen, C. J. & Horgan, B. P. (2005). Preventing pollution problems from Lawn and Garden fertilizers. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Extension Service. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy,
  59. Salem, H. M., Eweida, E. A., & Farag, A. (2000). Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. ICEHM, 2000, 542–556.Google Scholar
  60. Schmidt, J. R., Shaskus, M., Estenik, J. F., Oesch, C., Khidekel, R., et al. (2013). Variations in the microcystin content of different fish species collected from a eutrophic lake. Toxins (Basel), 5, 992–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwarzenbach, R. P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T. B., von Gunten, U., & Wehrli, B. (2010). Global water pollution and human health. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35, 109–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharp, K. A. (2001). Water: Structure and properties. Encyclopaedia of life sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Scholar
  63. Shiklomanov, I. A. (1997). Comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world (p. 88). Stockholm: World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar
  64. Shiklomanov, I. A., & Rodda, J. C. (2003). World water resources at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Singh, B., Singh, Y., & Sekhon, G. S. (2006). Fertilizer-N use and nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 20, 167–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smical, I., Mihaly-Cozmuta, L., & Costin, D. (2010a). Research concerning the influence of several factors on Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions adsorption by natural zeolite tuff from Maramureş county, Northern Romania. AES Bioflux, 2(2), 171–180.Google Scholar
  67. Smical, I., Mihaly-Cozmuta, L., & Costin, D. (2010b). Use of natural zeolites from Maramures county (Romania) in removal of Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ ions from industrial wastewaters. AES Bioflux, 2(2), 181–188.Google Scholar
  68. Swinkels, L. H., Van de Ven, M. W. P. M., Stassen, M. J. M., Van der Velde, G., Lenders, H. J. R., & Smolders, A. J. P. (2014). Suspended sediment causes annual acute fish mortality in the Pilcomayo River (Bolivia). Hydrological Processes, 28, 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor, R., & Smith, I. (1997). State of New Zealand’s environment. Wellington: The Ministry for the Environment.Google Scholar
  70. The United Nations World Water Development (UNWWD) Report. (2015). Section 2: Changing Natural Systems, Chapter 4, Part 1. Global Hydrology and Water Resources, p. 121.Google Scholar
  71. Traas, T. P., Janse, J. H., Van den Brink, P. J., Brock, T. C. M., & Aldenberg, T. (2004). A freshwater food web model for the combined effects of nutrients and insecticide stress and subsequent recovery. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tripathi, A. K., & Pandey, S. N. (2009). Water pollution (p. 3). New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  73. Tundu, C., Tumbare, M. J., & Onema, J. M. K. (2018). Sedimentation and its impacts/effects on river system and reservoir water quality: Case study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, 377, 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ullah, S., Javed, M. W., Shafique, M., et al. (2014). An integrated approach for quality assessment of drinking water using GIS: A case study of Lower Dir. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 47(2), 163–174.Google Scholar
  75. UN WWAP. (2003). United Nations world water assessment programme. The world water development report 1: Water for people, water for life. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  76. USGS Reston VA. (2014, February 18). A primer on water quality. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  77. Van den Brink, P. J., Roelsma, J., Van Nes, E. H., Scheffer, M., & Brock, T. C. M. (2002). PERPEST model, a case-based reasoning approach to predict ecological risks of pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21, 2500–2506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Voltz, M., Louchart, X., Andrieux, P., & Lennartz, B. (2007). Process of water contamination by pesticides at catchment scale in Mediterranean areas. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 37(2). Retrieved 5 March 2014 from
  79. Wan Ruslan, I., Khairul, R. A. B., Zullyadini, A. R., & Norhidayat, K. (2002). Storage of sediment and nutrients in littoral zone of a shallow tropical reservoir: A case of Timah Tasoh reservoir, Perlis, Malaysia (p. 276). Wallingford: IAHS Publications.Google Scholar
  80. (2010). Definition from Webster Dictionary 08–13. Retrieved August 26, 2010.Google Scholar
  81. Werner, W. (2002). Fertilizers; Environmental aspects. In Ullmann’s encyclopaedia of industrial chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.Google Scholar
  82. Yassi, A. L., Kjellstrom, T., DeKok, T., & Guidotti, T. (2001). Basic environmental health. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhang, S., Qiu, C. B., Zhou, Y., Jin, Z. P., & Yang, H. (2011). Bioaccumulation and degradation of pesticide fluroxypyr are associated with toxic tolerance in green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Ecotoxicology, 20, 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Humaira Qadri
    • 1
  • Rouf Ahmad Bhat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, School of SciencesSri Pratap College Campus, Cluster University of SrinagarSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations