Advertisement

Design of a Domestic Defluoridizing Unit

  • Shaheda Parveen
  • Venkata Nadh RatnakaramEmail author
  • Sireesha Malladi
  • K. Kiram Kumar
Conference paper
  • 165 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)

Abstract

While trace amounts of fluorine are essential for life, its excessive intake leads to a disease known as fluorosis. It is a predominant ailment in majority of the countries inclusive of India. It is caused also by drinking fluoride containing water. Retention of fluorine in bones and teeth occurs through F–(OH) exchange on their inorganic component known as hydroxylapatite. Endeavour of the present study is to design a column using activated alumina as an adsorbent for continuous defluoridation of water for domestic purpose. As a part of it, operational defluoridation capacity of alumina was determined by variation of different factors (amount of alumina, time, temperature, added salts). A family of four members was taken as a model. The initial and final fluoride concentrations were taken as 2.0 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. Dimension of the unit (adsorbent bed diameter and height) was determined.

Keywords

Design Domestic defluoridizing unit Fluorosis 

References

  1. 1.
    Ramesh, H.S., Kamaraju, M.: Continuous flow defluoridation unit for rural water supply scheme of fluoride prone areas. In: World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006: Examining the Confluence of Environmental and Water Concerns, pp. 1–10 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sahu, P., Kisku, G.C., Singh, P.K., Kumar, V., Kumar, P., Shukla, N.: Multivariate statistical interpretation on seasonal variations of fluoride-contaminated groundwater quality of Lalganj Tehsil, Raebareli District (UP). India. Environ. Earth Sci 77(13), 484 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bureau of Indian Standards: Indian Standard: Drinking Water—Specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heikens, A., Sumarti, S., Van Bergen, M., Widianarko, B., Fokkert, L., Van Leeuwen, K., Seinen, W.: The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: risks of excess fluoride to human health. Sci. Total Environ. 346(1–3), 56–69 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Dental Association (ADA).: Fluoridation Facts. ADA Statement Commemorating the 60th Anniversary of Community Water Fluoridation, 211 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611-2678 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dissanayake, C.B.: The fluoride problem in the groundwater of Srilanka—environmental management and health. Int. J. Environ. Stud 19, 195–203 (1991).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207239108710658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nie, Y., Hu, C., Kong, C.: Enhanced fluoride adsorption using Al (III) modified calcium hydroxyapatite. J. Hazard. Mater. 233, 194–199 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tebutt, T.: Relationship Between Natural Water Quality and Health. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (1983)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murray, J.J.: Appropriate Use of Fluorides for Human Health. World Health Organization, Geneva (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tekle-Haimanot, R., Melaku, Z., Kloos, H., Reimann, C., Fantaye, W., Zerihun, L., Bjorvatn, K.: The geographic distribution of fluoride in surface and groundwater in Ethiopia with an emphasis on the Rift Valley. Sci. Total Environ. 367(1), 182–190 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fawell, J., Bailey, K., Chilton, J., Dahi, E., Magara, Y.: Fluoride in drinking-water. IWA publishing World Health Organization and IWA Publishing, London (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pietrelli, L.: Fluoride wastewater treatment by adsorption onto metallurgical grade alumina. Anal. Chim. 95, 303–312 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maheshwari, R.C.: Fluoride in drinking water and its removal. J. Hazard. Mater. 137(1), 456–463 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.02.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mehari, B.B., Mayabi, A.O., Kakoi, B.K.: Development of household defluoridation unit based on crushed burnt clay pot as sorbent medium: a case of Keren Community, Eritrea. Environ. Nat. Resour. Res. 4(3), 67 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Samrat, M.V., Rao, K.K., SenGupta, A.K., Riotte, J., Mudakavi, J.R.: Defluoridation of reject water from a reverse osmosis unit and synthetic water using adsorption. J. Water Process Eng. 23, 327–337 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.07.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Babu, C.A., Sujish, D., Murugappa, M.S., Mohanakrishnan, G., Kalyanasundaram, P., Raj, B.: A comprehensive treatment method for defluoridation of drinking water. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 18, 314–318 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boruff, C.S.: Removal of fluorides from drinking waters. Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(1), 69–71 (1934).  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50289a016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bulusu, K.R., Nawlakhe, W.G.: Defluoridation of water with activated alumina: batch operations. Indian J. Environ. Health 30(3), 262–299 (1988)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benjamin, M.M., Leckie, J.O.: Conceptual model for metal-ligand-surface interactions during adsorption. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15(9), 1050–1057 (1981).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00091a003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association.: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American public health association (1989).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bellack, E., Schouboe, P.J.: Rapid photometric determination of fluoride in water. Use of sodium 2-(p-sulfophenylazo)-1, 8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3, 6-disulfonate-zirconium lake. Anal. Chem. 30(12):2032–2034 (1958).  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60144a050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gupta, V.K., Sharma, S.: Removal of cadmium and zinc from aqueous solutions using red mud. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36(16), 3612–3617 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es020010vCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bhattacharya, A.K., Mandal, S.N., Das, S.K.: Adsorption of Zn (II) from aqueous solution by using different adsorbents. Chem. Eng. J. 123(1–2), 43–51 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2006.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karthikeyan, G., Meenakshi, S., Apparel, B.V.: Defluoridation properties of activated alumina. In: Dahi, E., Nielsen, J.M. (eds.) 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water, pp. 19–25 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loganathan, P., Vigneswaran, S., Kandasamy, J., Naidu, R.: Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes. J. Hazard. Mater. 248, 1–9 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.12.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mondal, P., George, S.: A review on adsorbents used for defluoridation of drinking water. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 14(2), 195–210 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-014-9356-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Velazquez-Jimenez, L.H., Vences-Alvarez, E., Flores-Arciniega, J.L., Flores-Zuniga, H., Rangel-Mendez, J.R.: Water defluoridation with special emphasis on adsorbents-containing metal oxides and/or hydroxides: a review. Sep. Purif. Technol. 150, 292–307 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davis, J.A., Leckie, J.O.: Surface ionization and complexation at the oxide/water interface. 3. Adsorption of anions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 74(1):32–43 (1980).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(80)90168-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mulugeta, E., Zewge, F., Chandravanshi, B.S.: Development of a household water defluoridation process using aluminium hydroxide based adsorbent. Water Environ. Res. 87(6), 524–532 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.2175/106143014X13975035525627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eyobel, M.D.: Removal of fluoride from water using granular aluminium hydroxide: adsorption in a fixed bed column. M.Sc. Thesis, Environmental Science Program, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia (2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    LeVan, M.D., Vermeulen, T.: Channeling and bed-diameter effects in fixed-bed adsorber performance. AIChE Symp 80(233), 34–43 (1984)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhao, D., SenGupta, A.K.: Ligand separation with a copper (II)-loaded polymeric ligand exchanger. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39(2), 455–462 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie990740kCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dyer, C., Hendra, P.J., Forsling, W., Ranheimer, M.: Surface hydration of aqueous γ-Al2O3 studied by Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectroscopy—I. Initial results. Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 49(5–6), 691–705 (1993).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8539(93)80092-oCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shreyas, L., Kanwar, L., Rao, K.K.: Chemical engineering and the mitigation of fluorosis. Indian Chem. Eng. 55(1), 38–49 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00194506.2013.785116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bregnhoj, H.: Critical sustainability parameters in defluoridation of drinking water. In: Dahi, E., Nielsen, J.M. (eds.) Proceeding of 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water. International Society of Fluoride Research (1997)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mokkapati, R.P., Mokkapati, J.M., Ratnakaram, V.N.: Chemical oxygen demand reduction from coffee processing waste water—a comparative study on usage of biosorbents prepared from agricultural wastes. Glob. Nest. J. 17, 291–300 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mokkapati, R.P., Mokkapati, J.M., Ratnakaram, V.N.: Kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomaterials, casuarina equisetifolia L. and sorghum bicolor. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 33, 2374–2383 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-016-0078-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mokkapati, R.P., Mokkapati, J.M., Ratnakaram, V.N.: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamics investigation on adsorption of divalent copper using agro-waste biomaterials, Musa acuminata, Casuarina equisetifolia L. and Sorghum bicolor. Polish J. Chem. Tech. 18(2):68–77 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1515/pjct-2016-0031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mokkapati, R.P., Ratnakaram, V.N., Mokkapati, J.M.: Utilization of agro-waste for removal of toxic hexavalent chromium: surface interaction and mass transfer studies. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 875–886 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-017-1443-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMadurai Kamaraj UniversityMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.GITAM UniversityBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Science and Humanities, Division of ChemistryVFSTRVadlamudiIndia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryKBN CollegeVijayawadaIndia

Personalised recommendations