Study of Lightweight Mortar by Replacing Cement and Aggregates with Admixtures

  • Pankaj Sharma
  • Rajat Gupta
  • Kshethra Pradeep
  • Hritik S. Kothari
  • A. SofiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)


The research focuses on the study of admixtures used for producing lightweight mortar by replacing cement and fine aggregates. Mortar is a composition of water, fine aggregate and binding material. The concept of sustainable development and reduction in environmental degradation has been the talk of the hour for numerous years, and its application in the field of civil engineering is inevitable. Since cement production has multiple adverse effects on the environment and also the excessive instream sand mining causes the degradation of rivers, the objective of this research is to replace cement with metakaolin, silica fumes, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), lime and nano-silica materials. Plenty of aforementioned admixtures are basically waste products. Solid glass beads and cenosphere are used to replace sand entirely. Fifteen mix designs of different composition have been tested and analysed. Variety of tests including ultrasonic pulse velocity test, split tensile strength test and compressive strength test was performed to determine structural characteristics of the concrete mix. The optimum percentage of substitution is as follows: cement (35%), metakaolin (28%), silica fumes (12%), slag (15%), lime (10%) and nano-silica (0%). The selected mortar samples were characterized by the means of destructive and non-destructive tests, and the efficient mortar mix was analysed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM analysis).


Cement Metakaolin Silica fume Slag Lime Nano-silica Mortar 



The authors would like to express our token of gratitude to Dr. Sofi A. and the school of civil engineering (SCE), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, for giving us the golden opportunity to work on this experimental work.


  1. 1.
    Shetty, M.S.: Concrete Technology. S. Chand and Company, New Delhi, India (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASTM Designation C 150-00: Standard Specification for Portland cement. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Designation: C 150–07 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    John, N.: Strength Properties of Metakaolin Admixed Concrete, pp. 3–6 (2013). ISSN 2250-3153Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I.S. Code 456-2000: Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete. ICS 91.100.30Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cai, R., He, Z., Tang, S., Wu, T., Chen, E.: The Early Hydration of Metakaolin Blended Cements by Non-Contact Impedance Measurement, pp. 70–73.
  6. 6.
    Rasol, M.A.: Effect of Silica Fume on Concrete Properties and Advantages for Kurdistan Region, Iraq (2015). ISSN 2229–5518Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rai, S., Tiwari, S.: Nano Silica in Cement Hydration, NCNN, pp. 9197–9200 (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suthar, M., Aggarwal, P.: Bearing Ratio and Leachate Analysis of Pond Ash Stabilized with Lime and Lime Sludge, vol. 10, Issue 4, pp. 769–777 (2018).
  9. 9.
    IS 12089: Specification for Granulated Slag for the Manufacture of PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT, pp. 666–943. UDC 66G9 022-492Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das, S., Singh, G., Ahmed, A.A., Saha, S., Karmakar, S.: Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) based Concrete Exposed to Artificial Marine Environment(AME), pp. 2805–2808 (2018)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suresh, D., Nagaraju, K.: Ground Granulated Blast Slag (GGBS) In Concrete—A Review, pp. 76–78Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    IS 10262:2009: Indian Standards Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design. ICS 91.100.30Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Technical Data Sheet (Glass Beads)—Surface Finishing, Peening & Blasting, Masterblast, pp. 1–2Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ranjbar, N., Kuenzel, C.: Cenospheres: A Review, pp. 2–5 (2017).
  15. 15.
    Material Datasheet of MasterGelnium SKY8941 by O-BASFGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    IS 516: Method of Tests for Strength of Concrete. UDC 666.97. 620 17 (1959)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iffat, S.: Relation Between Density and Compressive Strength of Hardened Concrete, vol. 6, Issue no. 4, pp. 182–186 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    IS 13311-1: Method of Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete, Part 1: Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. UDC 666-972-620-179.16Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    ASTM C496: Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Designation: C 496/C 496M–04 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringVIT VelloreVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Structural and Geotechnical, School of Civil EngineeringVIT VelloreVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations