Bangladesh: From an Electoral Democracy to a Hybrid Regime (1991–2018)

  • Ali RiazEmail author
Part of the Politics of South Asia book series (POSAS)


The democratization process in Bangladesh began in 1991, after two decades of civilian and military authoritarian rule. Various features of an electoral democracy became the hallmarks at the auspicious beginning. However, within the following two decades, the quality of democracy deteriorated, and the country became an electoral authoritarianism, a variant of the hybrid regime. A manipulated general election in 2014, boycotted by all parties, paved the way for a reversal of democracy. This chapter discusses the political developments between 1991 and 2018, the backsliding of democracy, and the progressive attenuation of inclusive governance as a background to the 2018 election.


Electoral democracy Competitive authoritarianism Electoral authoritarianism Caretaker government Violence 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Politics and GovernmentIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA

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