Computer Simulations of Transcanal Endoscope Ear Surgery

  • Kazunori Futai
  • Seiji Kakehata


The surgical field within the middle ear is small, has been, up until recently, largely hidden from view, difficult to visualize, and filled with tiny, delicate anatomical structures. Thus, surgeons operating in the middle ear had to, by necessity, gather critical information only after they expose the surgical field as they perform microscopic ear surgery (MES). This situation made middle ear surgery particularly challenging. However, technological advances achieved from the turn of the twentieth century up to the present day in the fields of computer software and diagnostic imaging have helped to provide ear surgeons with better qualitative and quantitative data than was previously obtainable. Developments in both computer and imaging technology made complete computer simulation of middle ear surgical procedures possible for MES using programs such as Voxel-Man [1] and the OSU virtual temporal bone system [2] for education and training purposes.


  1. 1.
    Francis HW, Malik MU, Diaz Voss Varela DA. Technical skills improve after practice on virtual-reality temporal bone simulator. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1385–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wiet GJ, Stredney D, Kerwin T. Virtual temporal bone dissection system: development and testing. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(Suppl 1):S1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kakehata S, Watanabe T, Ito T, et al. Extension of indications for transcanal endoscopic ear surgery using an ultrasonic bone curette for cholesteatomas. Otol Neurotol. 2015;35:101–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watanabe T, Ito T, Furukawa T, et al. The efficacy of color mapped fusion images in the diagnosis and treatment of cholesteatoma using transcanal endoscopic ear surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2015;36:763–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazunori Futai
    • 1
  • Seiji Kakehata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of MedicineYamagata UniversityYamagataJapan

Personalised recommendations