Advertisement

The Relationship Between the Physiology and Pathology and the Intraocular Pressure

  • Jie Hao
  • Ningli WangEmail author
  • Hui Juan Wu
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 3)

Abstract

Intraocular pressure is the pressure that eyeball contents act on the wall of eyeball, and is essential for maintaining eyeball shape and physiological function. Like blood pressure, intraocular pressure keeps a dynamic balance state. Its stability depends on the dynamic balance between formation rate of aqueous humor, aqueous humor discharge rate, and episcleral venous pressure. Any factors causing this balance change will affect the changes in intraocular pressure. In the past, people are accustomed to study eyeball as an independent organ rather than part of the entire body, and even often ignore the effect of episcleral venous pressure. However, from the concept of holistic integrative medicine perspective and the overall view, the whole cycle of the body, its activities, and interaction with the surrounding environment are closely related with the organs. The physiological state of the body, such as gender, blood pressure, and breathing; the lifestyle, such as diet, exercise, and body position; and the pathological state, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and hemodialysis, will all have an impact on intraocular pressure. And changes in intraocular pressure will conversely affect the systemic physiological and pathological conditions. It is expected that from this chapter, readers can re-examine the intraocular pressure from the overall view and fully consider all aspects of the body factors when analyzing intraocular pressure levels and changes.

References

  1. 1.
    Shiose Y. The aging effect on intraocular pressure in an apparently normal population. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(6):883–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wong TT, Wong TY, Foster PJ, et al. The relationship of intraocular pressure with age, systolic blood pressure, and central corneal thickness in an Asian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(9):4097–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mansouri K, Weinreb RN, Liu JH. Effects of aging on 24-hour intraocular pressure measurements in sitting and supine body positions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(1):112–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leske MC, Connell AM, Wu SY, et al. Distribution of intraocular pressure. The Barbados Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(8):1051–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fukuoka S, Aihara M, Iwase A, et al. Intraocular pressure in an ophthalmologically normal Japanese population. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86(4):434–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu JH, Kripke DF, Hoffman RE, et al. Nocturnal elevation of intraocular pressure in young adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39(13):2707–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Loewen NA, Liu JH, Weinreb RN. Increased 24-hour variation of human intraocular pressure with short axial length. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(2):933–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malihi M, Sit AJ. Effect of head and body position on intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(5):987–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bulpitt CJ, Hodes C, Everitt MG. Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure in the elderly. Br J Ophthalmol. 1975;59(12):717–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Langham ME, To’Mey KF. A clinical procedure for the measurements of the ocular pulse-pressure relationship and the ophthalmic arterial pressure. Exp Eye Res. 1978;27(1):17–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schuman JS, Massicotte EC, Connolly S, et al. Increased intraocular pressure and visual field defects in high resistance wind instrument players. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(1):127–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang N, Ye T. Clinical glaucoma atlas. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2007.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li M. Glaucoma. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    David R, Zangwill L, Briscoe D, et al. Diurnal intraocular pressure variations: an analysis of 690 diurnal curves. Br J Ophthalmol. 1992;76(5):280–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tsukahara S, Sasaki T. Postural change of IOP in normal persons and in patients with primary wide open-angle glaucoma and low-tension glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1984;68(6):389–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fogagnolo P, Orzalesi N, Ferreras A, et al. The circadian curve of intraocular pressure: can we estimate its characteristics during office hours? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(5):2209–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krieglstein G, Langham ME. Influence of body position on the intraocular pressure of normal and glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmologica. 1975;171(2):132–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu JH, Kripke DF, Twa MD, et al. Twenty-four-hour pattern of intraocular pressure in the aging population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40(12):2912–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prata TS, Kanadani FN. Eye pressure and head position. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(11):2236–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kiuchi T, Motoyama Y, Oshika T. Relationship of progression of visual field damage to postural changes in intraocular pressure in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2150–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jain MR, Marmion VJ. Rapid pneumatic and Mackey-Marg applanation tonometry to evaluate the postural effect on intraocular pressure. Br J Ophthalmol. 1976;60(10):687–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buys YM, Alasbali T, Jin YP, et al. Effect of sleeping in a head-up position on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(7):1348–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baskaran M, Raman K, Ramani KK, et al. Intraocular pressure changes and ocular biometry during Sirsasana (headstand posture) in yoga practitioners. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(8):1327–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee JY, Yoo C, Jung JH, et al. The effect of lateral decubitus position on intraocular pressure in healthy young subjects. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90(1):e68–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Qureshi IA. Effects of mild, moderate and severe exercise on intraocular pressure of sedentary subjects. Ann Hum Biol. 1995;22(6):545–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dickerman RD, Smith GH, Langham-Roof L, et al. Intra-ocular pressure changes during maximal isometric contraction: does this reflect intra-cranial pressure or retinal venous pressure? Neurol Res. 1999;21(3):243–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kiuchi Y, Mishima HK, Hotehama Y, et al. Exercise intensity determines the magnitude of IOP decrease after running. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1994;38(2):191–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang Y, Wu Y, Li S, et al. Exercise and intraocular pressure. Chin J Ophthalmol. 2011;47(9):4.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mitchell P, Lee AJ, Wang JJ, et al. Intraocular pressure over the clinical range of blood pressure: blue mountains eye study findings. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(1):131–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tan GS, Wong TY, Fong CW, et al. Diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(10):1354–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren HosptialCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key LaboratoryBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HosptialCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyPeking University People’s HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations