Advertisement

The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Eye Disorders

  • Chen Xin
  • Ningli WangEmail author
  • Weihong Yu
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 3)

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common type of ENT disease and the most common type of sleep disorder. The disease easily leads to the occurrence of paroxysmal hypoxia in patients with sleep, followed by diseases of multiple systems. In the past, physicians were accustomed to seeing them as two distinct diseases. Careful physicians may notice that some patients with diabetic eye disease complain of poor quality of sleep, so is there a link between the two? How do they relate to systemic diseases? If we think from the perspective of integrated medicine, we can find that, first of all, theoretically, they have similar paths in pathology and physiology. Alternating hypoxia and awakening caused by “snoring” will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, causing a series of cascade reactions, including neurohumoral regulation disorder. In contrast, the microcirculation system meets the needs of eye tissue metabolism through the nervous, humoral, and metabolic regulation; myogenic regulation; and self-regulation. Second, from the clinical practice point of view, the two have similar comorbid diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure; and in scientific research practice, some of the clinical studies have verified the relevance of the two types of diseases. Therefore, we can fully understand the disease only through establishing a scientific “integrative” concept, grasping the correct understanding and practicing the concept of development.

References

  1. 1.
    Strollo PJ Jr, Rogers RM. Current concepts: obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(2):99–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fletcher EC. Sympathetic overactivity in the etiology of hypertension of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2003;26(1):15–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Otolaryngology Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. Diagnosis criteria and efficacy evaluation criteria for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and the indications of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (Hangzhou). Chin J Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;37(6):403–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sleep-Disordered Breathing Team, Respirology Branch of Chinese Medical Association. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (2011 revision). Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis. 2012;35(1):9–12.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Acar M, Firat H, Acar U, et al. Ocular surface assessment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2013;17(2):583–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chambe J, Laib S, Hubbard J, et al. Floppy eyelid syndrome is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea: a prospective study on 127 patients. J Sleep Res. 2012;21(3):308–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McNab AA. The eye and sleep. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33(2):117–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Palombi K, Renard E, Levy P, et al. Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy is nearly systematically associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(7):879–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mojon DS, Hess CW, Goldblum D, et al. High prevalence of glaucoma in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:1009–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sergi M, Salerno DE, Rizzi M, et al. Prevalence of normal tension glaucoma in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:42–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin PW, Friedman MW, Lin HC, et al. Normal tension glaucoma in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. J Glaucoma. 2011;20:553–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bendel RE, Kaplan J, Heckman M, et al. Prevalence of glaucoma in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea—a cross-sectional case series. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:1105–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karakucuk S, Goktas S, Aksu M, et al. Ocular blood flow in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:129–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geyer O, Cohen N, Segev E, et al. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients with sleep apnea syndrome: same as in the general population. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:1093–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin PW, Friedman MW, Lin HC, Chang HW, Wilson M, Lin MC. Normal tension glaucoma in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. J Glaucoma. 2011;20:553–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lungmark PO, Trope GE, Flanagan JG. The effect of simulated obstructive apnoea on intraocular and pulsatile ocular blood flow in healthy young adults. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87(11):1363–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Javaheri S, Qureshi Z, Golnik K. Resolution of papilledema associated with OSA treatment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:399–400.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Purvin VA, Kawasaki A, Yee RD. Papilledema and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1626–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thurtell MJ, Bruce BB, Rye DB, Newman NJ, Biousse V. The Berlin questionnaire screens for obstructive sleep apnea in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neuroophthalmol. 2011;31:316–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fraser JA, Bruce BB, Rucker J, et al. Risk factors for idiopathic intracranial hypertension in men: a case-control study. J Neurol Sci. 2010;290:86–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peter L, Jacob M, Krolak-Salmon P, et al. Prevalence of papilloedema in patients with sleep apnoea syndrome: a prospective study. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:313–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thurtell MJ, Trotti LM, Bixler EO, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: comparison with matched population data. J Neurol. 2013;260:1748–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xin C, Wang L, Zhang W, Wang J. Changes of visual field and optic nerve fiber layer in patient with OSAS. Sleep Breath. 2015;19:129–34. [Epub ahead of print].CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leroux les Jardins G, Glacet-Bernard A, Lasry S, Housset B, Coscas G, Soubrane G. [Retinal vein occlusion and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome]. J Fr Ophthalmol. 2009;32:420–4.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kosseifi S, Bailey B, Price R, Roy TM, Byrd RP Jr, Peiris AN. The association between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and microvascular complications in well-controlled diabetic patients. Mil Med. 2010;175(11):913–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mason RH, Kiire CA, Groves DC, et al. Visual improvement following continuous positive airway pressure therapy in diabetic subjects with clinically significant macular oedema and obstructive sleep apnoea: proof of principle study. Respiration. 2012;84:275–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramar K, Caples S. Vascular changes, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Future Cardiol. 2011;7:241–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ryan S, Taylor CT, McNicholas WT. Selective activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Circulation. 2005;112:2660–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu Q, Ju WK, Crowston JG, et al. Oxidative stress is an early event in hydrostatic pressure induced retinal ganglion cell damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4580–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fletcher EC, Miller J, Schaaf JW, Fletcher JG. Urinary catecholamines before and after tracheostomy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Sleep. 1987;10:35–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caprioli J, Coleman AL. Perspective: blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:704–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mojon DS, Mathis J, Zulauf M, et al. Optic neuropathy associated with sleep apnea syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:874–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hosking SL, Evans DW, Embleton SJ, et al. Hypercapnia invokes an acute loss of contrast sensitivity in untreated glaucoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1352–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hosking SL, Harris A, Chung HS, et al. Ocular haemodynamic responses to induced hypercapnia and hyperoxia in glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:406–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Evans DW, Harris A, Garrett M, et al. Glaucoma patients demonstrate faulty autoregulation of ocular blood flow during posture change. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:809–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key LaboratoryBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyPeking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations