Study on Generation and Outflow of Aqueous Humor from the Perspective of Organs
Aqueous humor is the important content inside the eye, and plays a vital role in maintaining the morphology of the eyeball, stability of intraocular pressure (IOP), and nutrition of anterior segment tissue. In the previous studies, people were accustomed to regard the eye as an independent organ from the body. The eyeball perfusion study in vitro based upon the above logic has suggested that the aqueous humor passively drained out of the eye along with the pressure gradient between intraocular pressure and episcleral venous pressure, during which the trabecular meshwork only played the role of drainage channel. But from the concept of holistic integrative medicine, the study of any organ should not be separated from the whole body. The body’s overall cycle, activity, and its interaction with the surrounding environment are closely related to the organ. Therefore, from the perspective of holistic integrative medicine, when we analyze the formation and outflow of aqueous humor from the view of the whole body regarding the eye as part of the body, we will surprisingly find that in the case of stroke volume being different, or the eyeball movement and eyelid closure, or the body position changing, the intraocular pressure will be changed instantaneously, and in a relatively long period of time the intraocular pressure is maintained in a relatively stable status. Thus we can’t help associating this with the pump function of the heart, which makes blood pressure remain stable in a long term by relying on its complete anatomical structure and fine self-regulation. With re-examining the dynamics of aqueous humor, people have realized that aqueous truly drains out of the eye by a pulsatile pattern. The outflow pathway, especially trabecular meshwork pathway, plays the role of self-regulation. Therefore, people recognize that the outflow pathway of aqueous humor is a finely set, fully functioning, and precisely controlled micro-organ formed on the basis of the large system of human body.
- 1.Johnstone MA. Aqueous humor outflow. In: Stamper R, Lieberman MF, Drake MV, editors. Diagnosis and therapy of the glaucomas. St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. p. 25–46.Google Scholar
- 2.Goldmann H. Abfluss des Kammerwassers beim Menschen. Ophthalmologica. 1946;111:146152.Google Scholar
- 4.Johnstone MA. The aqueous outflow system as a mechanical pump. Int Glaucoma Rev. 2003;5:14.Google Scholar
- 6.Smit BA, Johnstone MA. Effects of viscocanalostomy on the histology of Schlemm’s canal in primate eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:S578.Google Scholar
- 9.Johnstone MA, Tanner D, Chau B. Endothelial tubular channels in Schlemm’s canal. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1980;19:123.Google Scholar