Environmental Changes and Ocular Surface Disease

  • Qingfeng Liang
  • Shiming Li
  • Ningli WangEmail author
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 3)


The concept of “integrative ophthalmology,” with the purpose of transferring the perspective of people from each isolated organ to the macroscopic human body, emphasizes that from the view of regarding human body as a whole, people require not only to integrate each local organ, but also to analyze the interaction between macro-environment and the body. The “environment” in this section refers to the human-centered external world, which is the material basis of the subsistence and development of human beings, and is also an important condition closely related to human health. Environmental change is bound to have impact on human life and health, especially for ocular surface tissue that is directly exposed to the external environment. In this section, the effects of air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste pollution on human health are introduced briefly. Two kinds of ocular surface diseases caused by environmental factor, that is, allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye, are mainly discussed, with comprehensive description on their epidemiological characteristics, the relationship with environment, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. It is expected that by a case study of ocular surface disease, the majority of ophthalmologists can understand the important role of the environment in the occurrence and development of ocular diseases, and consider the analysis of environmental factors as an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases with the thought of “integrative ophthalmology.”


  1. 1.
    Zhang S. Environment and health. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xu H. Analysis of allergic conjunctivitis with dry eye in children. J Med Forum. 2010;21(5):117.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gehlsen U, Cursiefen C, Steven P. Basic immunology and current therapeutic concepts in ocular allergy. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2014;231(5):490–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The Definition and Classification of Dry Eye Disease: Report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). OculSurf. 2007;5:75–92.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rahman A, Yahya K. Validity of symptoms as screening toll for dry eye. Pak J Ophthalm. 2007;23(4):198–203.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, et al. Reliability and validity of the ocular surface disease index. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:615–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1264–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee AJ, Lee J, Saw SM, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population-based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1347–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chia EM, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, et al. Prevalence and associations of dry eye syndrome in an older population: the blue mountains eye study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:229–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, et al. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:318–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren HosptialCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key LaboratoryBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Tongren Eye CenterBeijingChina
  4. 4.Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HosptialCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations