Teratogenic Activity of Toxins in Zebrafish Model

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal


Toxins from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of cuttlefish are known toxins with pronounced toxicity. In this chapter, crude toxins from Sepia pharashadi are fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The yield protein and carbohydrate contents of the PSG toxin are estimated to be 1.61 mg/g and 0.06 mg/g, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of PSG toxin affirmed the incidence of CO-NH, CH and conjugated alkyl, alcoholic OH and primary NH functional groups. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and K2D analysis of the PSG toxin authenticated the attendance of secondary structure with 37% α-helix, 26% β sheet and 38% random coil. Teratogenicity of PSG toxin against Zebrafish embryo exhibited evolving malformations and premature hatching at a maximum tolerated dose of 1.0 μM. These findings strongly exhibit the toxicity of the ionic peptide-rich PSG toxin from S. pharashadi and its utilisation for its promise as a prospective cytotoxic agent of the future.


PSG toxin S. pharashadi RP-HPLC FT-IR CD Zebrafish Teratogenicity 



The author gratefully acknowledges the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India (BT/PR15676/AAQ/03/794/2016).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
    • 1
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal
    • 2
  1. 1.Native Medicine and Marine Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Allied Health SciencesChettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (Deemed to be a University)KelambakkamIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryRayalaseema UniversityKurnoolIndia

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