Teratogenic Activity of Peptides in Zebrafish Model

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal


Proteins and peptides are vital elements in food production both for their dietetic properties and for their functional properties that impact quality and customer acceptance of food. Peptides are significant bioenergetic natural products which exist in many marine organisms. These marine peptides have high budding nutraceutical and therapeutic values as of their wide spectra of bioactivities. The crude peptides are extracted from ascidians using organic solvents, fractionated to gel chromatography and then purified by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The presence of peptides and their functional groups is confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The molecular weight and de novo sequencing of purified peptide are confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and Mascot analysis, respectively. Finally, the lethal dose (LD50) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and teratogenicity of purified peptide from ascidians are reported by using zebrafish embryo model. This chapter emphasises on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical improvement into arcaded products.


Ascidian peptides RP-HPLC FT-IR MALDI-TOF Zebrafish Teratogenicity 



The author gratefully acknowledges the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India (BT/PR15676/AAQ/03/794/2016).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
    • 1
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal
    • 2
  1. 1.Native Medicine and Marine Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Allied Health SciencesChettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (Deemed to be a University)KelambakkamIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryRayalaseema UniversityKurnoolIndia

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