Biomedical Importance of Marine Peptides/Toxins

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal


Peptides transfer the information from cell to cell and regulate the life which is involved in biological signalling mechanism. Peptides consist of a combination of two or more amino acids which are linked together to form a polypeptide. Peptides are unable to enter into the cell since they are water soluble molecule. The DNA receives the peptide’s signal through the membrane receptor and these peptides are important bioactive natural products. Based on peptide’s broad spectrum bioactivites, these peptides have high medicinal and are present in many marine species and they have high potential nutritional and medicinal values. The divergence activities of these marine peptides fascinated towards the consideration of the pharmaceutical industry, which endeavours to intention them for use in the remedy or anticipation of various diseases. Various marine peptides and their derivatives have high cost-effective values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical perseverance.


Antimicrobial peptides Bioactive compounds Neuroprotective Nutraceutical Peptides Toxins Trabectedin 



Saravanan Ramachandran gratefully acknowledges the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India (BT/PR15676/AAQ/03/794/2016) for providing the facilities and financial support. Senthilkumar Rajagopal gratefully acknowledges the support provided by the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India (No: BT/RLF/Re-entry/42/2012).


  1. Agyei D, Danquah K (2011) Industrial-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical-grade bioactive peptides. Biotechnol Adv 29:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barzideh Z, A L, CY G, Benjakul S, Karim A (2014) Isolation and characterisation of collagen from the ribbon jellyfish (Chrysaora sp.). Int J Food Sci Technol 49:1490–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brogden K, Guthmiller J, Salzet M, Zasloff M (2005) The nervous system and innate immunity: the neuropeptide connection. Nat Immunol 6:558–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byun H, Kim S (2001) Purification and characterization of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Alaska pollack (Theragrachalcogramma) skin. Process Biochem 36:1155–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casewell N, Wuster W, Vonk F, Harrison R, Fry B (2013) Complex cocktails: the evolutionary novelty of venoms. Trends Ecol Eval 28:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chakrabarti S, Guha S, Majumder K (2018) Food-derived bioactive peptides in human health: challenges and opportunities. Nutrients 10:1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conceicao K, Konno K, Melo R, Marques E, Hiruma-Lima C, Lima C, Richardson M, Pimenta D, Lopes-Ferreira M (2006) Orpotrin: a novel vasoconstrictor peptide from the venom of the Brazilian sting ray Potamotrygong orbignyi. Peptides 27:3039–3046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craik D, Daly N, Saska I, Trabi M, Johan Rosengren K (2003) Structures of naturally occurring circular proteins from bacteria. J Bacteriol 185:4011–4021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Vries D, Beart P (1995) Fishing for drugs from the sea: status and strategies. Tredens Pharmacol Sci 16:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dias D, Urban S, Roessner U (2012) Historical overview of natural products in drug discovery. Meta 2:303–336Google Scholar
  11. Di-Bernardini R, Harnedy P, Bolton D, Kerry J, O’Neill E, Mullen A, Hayes M (2011) Antioxidant and antimicrobial peptidichydrolysates from muscle protein sources and by-products. Food Chem 124:1296–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Felician F, Xia C, Qi W, Xu H (2018) Collagen from marine biological sources and medical applications. Chem Biodivers 15:e1700557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghadessy F, Chen D, Kini R, Chung M, Jeyaseelan K, Khoo H, Yuen R (1996) Stonustoxin is a novel lethal factor from stonefish (Synanceja horrida) venom cDNA cloning and characterization. J Biol Chem 271:25575–25581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hancock R (2001) Cationic peptides: effectors in innate immunity and novel antimicrobials. Lancet Infect Dis 1:156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hartmann R, Meisel H (2007) Food-derived peptides with biological activity: from research to food applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kamdem J, Tsopmo A (2017) Reactivity of peptides within the food matrix. J Food Biochem:e12489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim S, Mendis E (2006) Bioactive compounds from marine processing byproducts—a review. Food Res Int 39:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kinch M, Haynesworth A, Kinch S, Hoyer D (2014) An overview of FDA-approved new molecular entities: 1827–2013. Drug Discov Today 19:1033–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. King G (2011) Venoms as a platform for human drugs: translating toxins into therapeutics. Expert Opin Biol Ther 11:1469–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kitts D, Weiler K (2003) Bioactive proteins and peptides from food sources. Applications of bioprocesses used in isolation and recovery. Curr Pharm Des 9:1309–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kondejewski L, Jelokhani-Niaraki M, Farmer S, Lix B, Kay C, Sykes B, Hancock R, Hodges R (1999) Dissociation of antimicrobial and hemolytic activities in cyclic peptide diastereomers by systematic alterations in amphipathicity. J Biol Chem 274:13181–13192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee S, Hur S (2017) Antihypertensive peptides from animal products, marine organisms, and plants. Food Chem 228:506–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lehrer R, Selsted M, Szklarek D, Fleischmann J (1983) Antibacterial activity of microbicidal cationic proteins 1 and 2, natural peptide antibiotics of rabbit lung macrophages. Infect Immun 42:10–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Martins A, Vieira H, Gaspar H, Santos S (2014) Marketed marine natural products in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries: tips for success. Mar Drugs 12:1066–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayer A, Gustafson K (2008) Marine pharmacology in 2005–2006: antitumour and cytotoxic compounds. Eur J Cancer 44:2357–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meyer B, Mann N, Lewis J, Milligan G, Sinclair A, Howe P (2003) Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 38:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Minkiewicz P, Dziuba J, Michalska J (2011) Bovine meat proteins as potential precursors of biologically active peptides-a computational study based on the BIOPEP database. Food Sci Technol Int 17:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Molinski T, Dalisay D, Lievens S, Saludes J (2009) Drug development from marine natural products. Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Montaser R, Luesch H (2011) Marine natural products: A new wave of drugs? Future Med Chem 3:1475–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murray B, FitzGerald R (2007) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins: biochemistry, bioactivity and production. Curr Pharm Des 13:773–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nagai H (2012) Marine protein toxins. Springer, DordretchCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nagai T, Araki Y, Suzuki N (2002) Collagen of the skin of ocellate puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes). Food Chem 78:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nagai T, Suzuki N, Tanoue Y, Kai N, Nagashima T (2010) Characterization of acid-soluble collagen from skins of surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus japonicus Brevoort). Food Nutr Sci 1:59–66Google Scholar
  34. Naylor R (2001) ECOLOGY: aquaculture–a gateway for exotic species. Science 294:1655–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Newman D, Cragg G (2012) Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod 75:311–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nishimoto S, Goto Y, Morishige H, Shiraishi R, Doi M, Akiyama K, Yamauchi S, Sugahara T (2008) Mode of action of the immunostimulatory effect of collagen from jellyfish. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:2806–2811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Padhia A, Senguptaa M, Senguptaa S, Roehmb K, Sonawane A (2014) Antimicrobial peptides and proteins in mycobacterial therapy: current status and future prospects. Tuberculosis 94:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rajapakse N, Jung W, Mendis E, Moon S, Kim S (2005) A novel anticoagulant purified from fish protein hydrolysate inhibits factor XIIa and platelet aggregation. Life Sci 76:2607–2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rennekamp A, Peterson R (2015) 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening. Curr Opin Chem Biol 24:58–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rizzello C, Tagliazucchi D, Babini E, Rutella G, Saa D, Gianotti A (2016) Bioactive peptides from vegetable food matrices: research trends and novel biotechnologies for synthesis and recovery. J Funct Foods 27:549–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robinson S, Safavi-Hemami H, McIntosh L, Purcell A, Norton R, Papenfuss A (2014) Diversity of Conotoxin gene Superfamilies in the venomous snail, Conus victoriae. PLoS One 9:e87648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rosenberg A (2008) Aquaculture: the price of lice. Nature 451:23–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rushikesh S, Pravin P, Seetharama J (2017) Peptides, Peptidomimetics, and polypeptides from marine sources: A wealth of natural sources for pharmaceutical applications. Mar Drugs 15:124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rustad T (2003) Utilisation of marine by-products. Electron J Environ Agric Food Technol 2:458–463Google Scholar
  45. Sengupta D, Leontiadou H, Mark A, Marrink S (2008) Toroidal pores formed by antimicrobial peptides show significant disorder. Biochem Biophys Acta 1778:2308–2317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Silva T, Moreira-Silva J, Marques A, Domingues A, Bayon Y, Reis R (2014) Marine origin collagens and its potential applications. Mar Drugs 12:5881–5901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ueda A, Suzuki M, Honma T, Nagai H, Nagashima Y, Shiomi K (2006) Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), a hemolyticlethal factor from the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa venom. Biochim Biophys Acta 1760:1713–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zanetti M (2004) Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity. J Leukoc Biol 75:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zasloff M (1987) Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:5449–5453CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saravanan Ramachandran
    • 1
  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal
    • 2
  1. 1.Native Medicine and Marine Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Allied Health SciencesChettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (Deemed to be a University)KelambakkamIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryRayalaseema UniversityKurnoolIndia

Personalised recommendations