Advertisement

Immunisation

  • Joseph Torresi
  • Sarah McGuinness
  • Karin Leder
  • Daniel O’Brien
  • Tilman Ruff
  • Mike Starr
  • Katherine Gibney
Chapter
  • 261 Downloads

Abstract

Immunisation is a key strategy in the prevention of infectious diseases, both at an individual and community (public health) level. Vaccine choice and priorities for the traveller vary according to the characteristics of the individual and their planned trip, and should be individualised. Clinicians should take into consideration the range of potential variations on a planned trip as itineraries can change. Because many vaccines provide a period of protection that extends well beyond an individual trip, it is worthwhile to discuss travellers’ future plans and consider the cumulative risk of disease exposure when weighing up the risks and benefits of vaccination. In this chapter we provide a general discussion of vaccine choice and priorities for the traveller relative to required, recommended and routine vaccinations and a detailed discussion of all vaccines that may be relevant for travellers.

Key Reading

2.1 Introduction to Pre-travel Vaccination

  1. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vaccine recommendations and guidelines: timing and spacing of immunobiologics. 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/general-recs/timing.html. Accessed 24 Jul 2018.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Australian immunisation handbook. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2018. https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au.Google Scholar
  3. Kroger AT, Strikas RA. General Recommendations for Vaccination & Immunoprophylaxis [updated June 13 2017]. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/the-pre-travel-consultation/general-recommendations-for-vaccination-immunoprophylaxis. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  4. Leder K, Chen LH, Wilson ME. Aggregate travel vs. single trip assessment: arguments for cumulative risk analysis. Vaccine. 2012;30(15):2600–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017.Google Scholar
  6. Steffen R, Behrens RH, Hill DR, Greenaway C, Leder K. Vaccine-preventable travel health risks: what is the evidence-what are the gaps? J Travel Med. 2015;22(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. World Health Organization. Health conditions for travellers to Saudi Arabia for the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017;92(33):476. http://www.who.int/ith/updates/20170408/en/. Accessed 24 Jul 2018.Google Scholar
  8. World Health Organization. International travel and health. Countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination—International Travel and Health Annex 1—2018. http://www.who.int/ith/en/. Accessed 24 Jul 2018.
  9. World Health Organization. International Health Regulations (2005). 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO; 2016. http://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241580496/en/. Accessed 24 Jul 2018.Google Scholar
  10. Youngster I, Barnett ED. Interactions among Travel Vaccines & Drugs. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/the-pre-travel-consultation/interactions-among-travel-vaccines-and-drugs. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar

2.2 Cholera

  1. Cholera vaccines. WHO position paper—August 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017;92:477–98.Google Scholar
  2. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera. Lancet. 2012;379:2466–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:561–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera vaccines. J Travel Med. 2001;8:82–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Sack DA, Sack RB, Nair B, Siddique AK. Cholera. Lancet. 2004;363(9404):223–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Steffen R, Castelli F, Nothdurft HD, Rombo L, Zuckerman JN. Vaccination against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, a cause of travelers’ diarrhea. J Travel Med. 2005;12:102–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Steffen R, Behrens RH, Hill DR, Greenaway C, Leder K. Vaccine-preventable travel health risks: what is the evidence—what are the gaps? J Travel Med. 2015;22(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

2.3 Diphtheria and Tetanus

  1. Demicheli V, Barale A, Rivetti A. Vaccines for women for preventing neonatal tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(7):CD002959.Google Scholar
  2. Murphy T, Slade B, Broder K, Kretsinger K, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008;57(RR-4):1–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Australian Government Department of Health. http://www9.health.gov.au/cda/source/cda-index.cfm.
  4. NNDSS Annual Report Working Group. Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2014: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2016;40:E48–145.Google Scholar
  5. Sadoh A, Oladokun R. Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria. Vaccine. 2012;30:7221–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Thwaites C, Loan H. Eradication of tetanus. Br Med Bull. 2015;116:69–77.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Zakikhany K, Efstratiou A. Diphtheria in Europe: current problems and new challenges. Future Microbiol. 2012;7:595–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.4 Hepatitis A

  1. Averhoff FM, Khudyakov Y, Nelson NP. Hepatitis A vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Plotkin’s vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 177–204.Google Scholar
  2. Crofts N, Cooper G, Stewart T, Kiely I, et al. Exposure to hepatitis A virus among blood donors, injecting drug users and prison entrants in Victoria. J Viral Hepat. 1997;4(5):333–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hanna JN, Hills SL, Humphreys JL. Impact of hepatitis A vaccination of Indigenous children on notifications of hepatitis A in north Queensland. Med J Aust. 2004;181:482–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Innis B, Snitbhan R, Kinasol P, Laorakpongse T, et al. Protection against hepatitis A by an inactivated vaccine. JAMA. 1994;271:1328–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lange WR, Frame JD. High incidence of viral hepatitis among American missionaries in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43(5):527–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lau C, Streeton C, David M, Sly P, Mills D. The tolerability of a combined hepatitis A and typhoid vaccine in children aged 2-16 years: an observational study. J Travel Med. 2016;23:tav023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mutsch M, Spicher VM, Gut C, Steffen R. Hepatitis A virus infections in travelers, 1988–2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:490–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nelson N, Hepatitis A. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. Updated 9 Sep 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-a. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  9. Proell S, Maiwald H, Nothdurft H-D, Saenger R, et al. Combined vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and typhoid fever: safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity. J Travel Med. 2002;9:122–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rendi-Wagner P, Kundi M, Stemberger H, Wiedermann G, et al. Antibody-response to three recombinant hepatitis B vaccines: comparative evaluation of multicenter travel-clinic based experience. Vaccine. 2001;19(15–16):2055–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Thompson C, Dey A, Fearnley E, Polkinghorne B, Beard F. Impact of the national targeted hepatitis A immunisation program in Australia: 2000-2014. Vaccine. 2017;35:170–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Victor JC, Monto AS, Surdina TY, Suleimenova SZ, et al. Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1685–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Werzberger A, Mensch B, Kuter B, Brown L, et al. A controlled trial of a formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:453–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. World Health Organization. Hepatitis A vaccines. WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2012;87(28-9):261–76.Google Scholar

2.5 Hepatitis B

  1. Averhoff F. Hepatitis B [updated 13 June 2017]. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-b. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  2. Banatvala J, van Damme P, Oehen S. Lifelong protection against hepatitis B: the role of vaccine immunogenicity in immune memory. Vaccine. 2000;19:877–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Johnson DF, Leder K, Torresi J. Hepatitis B and C infection in international travelers. J Travel Med. 2013;20(3):194–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Johnson DF, Ratnam I, Matchett E, et al. The incidence of HBV and HCV infection in Australian travelers to Asia. J Travel Med. 2013;20(3):203–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Leggat PA, Zwar NA, Hudson BJ. Hepatitis B risks and immunisation coverage amongst Australians travelling to Southeast Asia and East Asia. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2009;7:344–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rendi-Wagner P, Kundi M, Stemberger H, Wiedermann G, et al. Antibody-response to three recombinant hepatitis B vaccines: comparative evaluation of multicenter travel-clinic based experience. Vaccine. 2001;19(15–16):2055–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Streeton CL, Zwar N. Risk of exposure to hepatitis B and other blood-borne viruses among Australians who travel abroad. J Travel Med. 2006;6:345–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Van Damme P, Ward JW, Shouval D, Zanetti A. Hepatitis B vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Plotkin’s vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 342–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B vaccines. WHO Position Paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017;92(27):369–92.Google Scholar
  10. Zuckerman JN, Steffen R. Risks of hepatitis B in travellers as compared to immunisation status. J Travel Med. 2000;7:170–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zwar NA, on behalf of the Travel Health Advisory Group. Hepatitis risk and vaccination among Australian travellers overseas. Med J Aust. 2003;178:469–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.6 Influenza

  1. Ahmed F, Singleton JA, Franks AL. Influenza vaccination for healthy young adults. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(21):1543–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA). ASCIA Guidelines - Vaccination of the egg-allergic individual. 2017. https://www.allergy.org.au/hp/papers/vaccination-of-the-egg-allergic-individual.
  3. Australian Government Department of Health. Australian Influenza Surveillance Report—2018 National Influenza Season Summary. Canberra; 2018. http://www.health.gov.au/flureport#current.
  4. Bridges CB, Fukuda K, Cox NJ, Singleton JA. Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50:1–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Couch RB. Prevention and treatment of influenza. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(24):1778–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen LH, Wilson ME. Recent advances and new challenges in travel medicine. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2002;4(1):50–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mutsch M, Tavernini M, Marx A, Gregory V, et al. Influenza virus infection in travelers to tropical and subtropical countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1282–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ratnam I, Black J, Leder K, Biggs BA, Gordon I, Matchett E, et al. Incidence and risk factors for acute respiratory illnesses and influenza virus infections in Australian travellers to Asia. J Clin Virol. 2013;57(1):54–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.7 Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

  1. Bonaparte M, Dweik B, Feroldi E, Meric C, Bouckenooghe A, Hildreth S, et al. Immune response to live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-CV) neutralizes Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from south-east Asia and India. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:156.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burchard GD, Caumes E, Connor BA, Freedman DO, Jelinek T, Jong EC, et al. Expert opinion on vaccination of travelers against Japanese encephalitis. J Travel Med. 2009;16(3):204–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campbell GL, Hills SL, Fischer M, Jacobson JA, Hoke CH, Hombach JM, et al. Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(10):766–74. 74A-74E.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chokephaibulkit K, Houillon G, Feroldi E, Bouckenooghe A. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (IMOJEV(R)) in children. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016;15(2):153–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chokephaibulkit K, Sirivichayakul C, Thisyakorn U, Sabchareon A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a single administration of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in previously primed 2- to 5-year-olds and naive 12- to 24-month-olds: multicenter randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(12):1111–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cramer JP, Jelinek T, Paulke-Korinek M, Reisinger EC, Dieckmann S, Alberer M, et al. One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine administered concomitantly according to a new, 1-week, accelerated primary series. J Travel Med. 2016;23(3):1–8.Google Scholar
  7. Desai K, Coudeville L, Bailleux F. Modelling the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibody in adults after one dose of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30(15):2510–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Erra EO, Kantele A. The Vero cell-derived, inactivated, SA14-14-2 strain-based vaccine (Ixiaro) for prevention of Japanese encephalitis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(9):1167–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gao X, Li X, Li M, Fu S, Wang H, Lu Z, et al. Vaccine strategies for the control and prevention of Japanese encephalitis in Mainland China, 1951-2011. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(8):e3015.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guy B, Guirakhoo F, Barban V, Higgs S, et al. Preclinical and clinical development of YFV 17D-based chimeric vaccines against dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Vaccine. 2010;28(3):632–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hills SL, Griggs AC, Fischer M. Japanese encephalitis in travelers from non-endemic countries, 1973–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(5):930–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halstead SB, Hills SL, Dubischar K. Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Chapter 33. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, editors. Vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2018. p. 511–48.Google Scholar
  13. Hills SL, Rabe IB, Fischer M. Japanese Encephalitis [updated May 31 2017]. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/japanese-encephalitis. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  14. Kaltenböck A, Dubischar-Kastner K, Eder G, Jilg W, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of concomitant vaccination with the cell-culture based Japanese encephalitis vaccine IC51 and the hepatitis A vaccine HAVRIX 1440 in healthy subjects: a single-blind, randomized, controlled Phase 3 study. Vaccine. 2009;27(33):4483–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lehtinen VA, Huhtamo E, Siikamaki H, Vapalahti O. Japanese encephalitis in a Finnish traveler on a two-week holiday in Thailand. J Clin Virol. 2008;43(1):93–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nasveld PE, Ebringer A, Elmes N, Bennett S, Yoksan S, Aaskov J, et al. Long term immunity to live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine: randomized, double-blind, 5-year phase II study in healthy adults. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6(12):1038–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ratnam I, Leder K, Black J, Biggs BA, Matchett E, Padiglione A, et al. Low risk of Japanese encephalitis in short-term Australian travelers to Asia. J Travel Med. 2013;20(3):206–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schuller E, Jilma B, Voicu V, Golor G, et al. Long-term immunogenicity of the new Vero cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IC51 Six and 12 month results of a multicenter follow-up phase 3 study. Vaccine. 2008;26:4382–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tauber E, Kollaritsch H, Korinek M, Rendi-Wagner P, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine: a non-inferiority, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;370:1847–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Torresi J, McCarthy K, Feroldi E, Méric C. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability in adults of a new single-dose, live-attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis: Randomised controlled phase 3 trials. Vaccine. 2010;28(50):7993–8000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.8 MMR

  1. Aickin R, Hill D, Kemp A. Measles immunisation in children with allergy to egg. BMJ. 1994;309:223–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Grant G, Reef S, Dabbagh A, Gacic-Dobo M, Strebel P. Global progress toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella syndrome control and elimination—2000-2014. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:1052–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ramanathan R, Voigt E, Kennedy R, Poland G. Knowledge gaps persist and hinder progress in eliminating mumps. Vaccine. 2018;36:3721–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.9 Meningococcal Disease

  1. Borrow R, Alarcón P, Carlos J, Caugant DA, Christensen H, Debbag R, De Wals P, Echániz-Aviles G, Findlow J, Head C, Holt D, Kamiya H, Saha SK, Sidorenko S, Taha MK, Trotter C, Vázquez Moreno JA, von Gottberg A, Sáfadi MA, Global Meningococcal Initiative. The Global meningococcal initiative: global epidemiology, the impact of vaccines on meningococcal disease and the importance of herd protection. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2017;16:313–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Borrow R, Caugant DA, Ceyhan M, Christensen H, Dinleyici EC, Findlow J, Glennie L, Von Gottberg A, Kechrid A, Vázquez Moreno J, Razki A, Smith V, Taha MK, Tali-Maamar H, Zerouali K, Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI). Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative. J Infect. 2017;75:1–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohn A, MacNeil J, Clark T, Ortega-Sanchez I, Briere E, Meissner H, Baker C, Messonnier N, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-2):1–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Cramer J, Wilder-Smith A. Meningococcal disease in travelers: update on vaccine options. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:507–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. McCarthy A, Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine; Travel (CATMAT). Statement on meningococcal disease and the International Traveller. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2015;41:100–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.10 Pertussis

  1. Edwards K, Berbers G. Immune responses to pertussis vaccines and disease. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(Suppl 1):S10–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Elliott E, McIntyre P, Ridley G, Morris A, et al. National study of infants hospitalised with pertussis in the acellular vaccine era. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:246–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Lambert L. Pertussis vaccine trials in the 1990s. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(Suppl 1):S4–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lapidot R, Gill C. The Pertussis resurgence: putting together the pieces of the puzzle. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccin. 2016;2:26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pillsbury A, Quinn H, McIntyre P. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiological review series: pertussis, 2006-2012. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2014;38:E179–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Prevention and Control of Pertussis. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(Suppl 1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Straney L, Schibler A, Ganeshalingham A, Alexander J, Festa M, Slater A, MacLaren G, Schlapbach L, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcomes and Resource Evaluation and the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Paediatric Study Group. Burden and outcomes of severe pertussis infection in critically ill infants. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:735–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Wilder-Smith A, Earnest A, Ravindran S, Paton N. High incidence of pertussis among Hajj pilgrims. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1270–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. World Health Organization. Pertussis vaccine: WHO position paper—August 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2015;90(35):433–60.Google Scholar
  10. Yeung K, Duclos P, Nelson E, Hutubessy R. An update of the global burden of pertussis in children younger than 5 years: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:974–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.11 Pneumococcal Disease

  1. Black S, Shinefield H, Fireman B, Lewis E, et al. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonten MJ, Huijts SM, Bolkenbaas M, Webber C, Patterson S, Gault S, et al. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(12):1114–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dagan R, Frasch C. Clinical characteristics of a novel 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine candidate (PHiD-CV). Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(4 Suppl):S63–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ewald H, Briel M, Vuichard D, Kreutle V, Zhydkov A, Gloy V. The clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016;113(9):139–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Gidding HF, McCallum L, Fathima P, Moore HC, Snelling TL, Blyth CC, et al. Effectiveness of a 3 + 0 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedule against invasive pneumococcal disease among a birth cohort of 1.4 million children in Australia. Vaccine. 2018;36(19):2650–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Isturiz RE, Schmoele-Thoma B, Scott DA, Jodar L, Webber C, Sings HL, et al. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016;15(3):279–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jayasinghe S, Menzies R, Chiu C, Toms C, Blyth CC, Krause V, et al. Long-term impact of a “3 + 0” schedule for 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2002-2014. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(2):175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lucero MG, Dulalia VE, Nillos LT, Williams G, et al. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and X-ray defined pneumonia in children less than two years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD004977.Google Scholar
  9. Moore MR, Link-Gelles R, Schaffner W, Lynfield R, Lexau C, Bennett NM, et al. Effect of use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children on invasive pneumococcal disease in children and adults in the USA: analysis of multisite, population-based surveillance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(3):301–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nuorti JP, Whitney CG, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children—use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine—recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-11):1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Poolman J, Borrow R. Hyporesponsiveness and its clinical implications after vaccination with polysaccharide or glycoconjugate vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:307–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Russell FM, Carapetis JR, Balloch A, Licciardi PV, et al. Hyporesponsiveness to re-challenge dose following pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age, a randomized controlled trial. Vaccine. 2010;28:3341–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Scott J. The preventable burden of pneumococcal disease in the developing world. Vaccine. 2007;25:2398–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tin Tin Htar M, Christopoulou D, Schmitt HJ. Pneumococcal serotype evolution in Western Europe. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:419.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Torzillo PJ, Morey F, Gratten M, Murphy D, et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia prior to conjugate vaccine: a 16-year study. Vaccine. 2007;25:2375–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.12 Poliomyelitis

  1. Stewardson AJ, Roberts JA, Beckett CL, et al. Imported case of poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:63–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Sutter RW, Kew OM, Cochi SL, Aylward RB. Poliovirus vaccine—live. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 866–917.Google Scholar
  3. Vidor E. Poliovirus vaccine—inactivated. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Plotkin’s vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 841–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wilder-Smith A, Leong WY, Lopez LF, et al. Potential for international spread of wild poliovirus via travelers. BMC Med. 2015;13:133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. World Health Organization (WHO). Polio vaccine: WHO position paper—March, 2016. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016;91(12):145–68.Google Scholar
  6. World Health Organization (WHO). Polio: statement of the twenty-first IHR Emergency Committee regarding the international spread of poliovirus. 29 May 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/29-05-2019-statement-of-thetwenty-first-ihr-emergency-committee. Accessed 11 June 2019.

2.13 Rabies

  1. CDC. Human rabies prevention—United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008;57(RR-03):1–28.Google Scholar
  2. CDC. Rabies-Free Countries and Political Units. https://www.cdc.gov/importation/rabies-free-countries.html.
  3. Fooks AR, Cliquet F, Finke S, Freuling C, Hemachudha T, Mani RS, Müller T, Nadin-Davis S, Picard-Meyer E, Wilde H, Banyard AC. Rabies. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17091.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Gautret P, Parola P. Rabies vaccination for international travelers. Vaccine. 2012;30(2):126–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Langerdijk AC, de Pijper CA, Spijker R, Holman R, Grobusch MP, Stijnis C. Rabies antibody response after booster immunization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(12):1932–47.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mills DJ, Lau CL, Fearnley EJ, Weinstein P. The immunogenicity of a modified intradermal pre-exposure rabies vaccination schedule—a case series of 420 travelers. J Travel Med. 2011;18(5):327–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Petersen BW, Wallace RM, Shlim DR. Rabies [updated May 31 2017]. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rabies. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  8. Rupprecht CE, Gibbons RV. Clinical practice. Prophylaxis against rabies. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(26):2626–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Warrell MJ, Warrell DA. Rabies and other lyssavirus diseases. Lancet. 2004;363(9413):959–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/rabies/en/.
  11. World Health Organization. Rabies vaccines WHO position paper—April 2018. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2018;16(93):201–20.Google Scholar
  12. World Health Organization Expert Consultation on Rabies: Second Report. World Health Organization. 2013. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85346.Google Scholar

2.14 Rotavirus Infection

  1. Carlin JB, Macartney KK, Lee KJ, et al. Intussusception risk and disease prevention associated with rotavirus vaccines in Australia’s National Immunisation Program. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1427–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Rotavirus vaccines for Australian children | NCIRS Fact Sheet. 2013. http://www.ncirs.edu.au/assets/provider_resources/fact-sheets/rotavirus-fact-sheet.pdf.Google Scholar
  3. Patel MM, López-Collada VR, Bulhões MM, De Oliveira LH, et al. Intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in Mexico and Brazil. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2283–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ruiz-Palacios GM, Pérez-Schael I, Velázquez FR, Abate H, et al. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Soares-Weiser K, Goldberg E, Tamimi G, Pitan O, Leibovici L. Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD002848.Google Scholar
  6. Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, Van Damme P, et al. Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human–bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. WHO. Rotavirus vaccine and intussusception: report from an expert consultation. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2011;86:317–21.Google Scholar
  8. World Health Organization. Rotavirus vaccines. WHO position paper—January 2013. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2013;88:49–64.Google Scholar

2.15 Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

  1. Chaudhuri A, Ruzek D. First documented case of imported tick-borne encephalitis in Australia. Intern Med J. 2013;43:93–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fischer M, Rabe IB, Rollin PE. Tick-borne encephalitis (updated 31 May 2017). In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/tickborne-encephalitis.Google Scholar
  3. Hombach J, Barrett ADT, Kollaritsch H. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, editors. Vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 1095–113.Google Scholar
  4. World Health Organization. Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis. WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2011;86(24):241–56.Google Scholar
  5. World Health Organization. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines—2017 update. In: International travel and health. Geneva: WHO. https://www.who.int/ith/ITH-Chapter6.pdf?ua=1.

2.16 Tuberculosis

  1. Brewer T, Colditz G. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination for the prevention of tuberculosis in health care workers. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:136–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Colditz G, Brewer T, Berkey C, Wilson M, Burdick E, Fineberg H. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature. JAMA. 1994;271:698–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cruz A, Starke J, Lobato M. Old and new approaches to diagnosing and treating latent tuberculosis in children in low-incidence countries. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26:106–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Denholm J, Thevarajan I. Tuberculosis and the traveller: evaluating and reducing risk through travel consultation. J Travel Med. 2016;23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harrop T, Aird J, Thwaites G. How to minimise risk of acquiring tuberculosis when working in a high prevalence setting: a guide for healthcare workers. BMJ. 2011;342:d1544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. National Tuberculosis Advisory Committee Update October 2012. The BCG vaccine: information and recommendations for use in Australia. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2013;37:E65–72.Google Scholar
  7. Ritz N, Tebruegge M, Camacho-Badilla K, Haeusler G, Connell T, Curtis N. To TST or not to TST: is tuberculin skin testing necessary before BCG immunisation in children? Vaccine. 2012;30:1434–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Roy A, Eisenhut M, Harris R, Rodrigues L, Sridhar S, Habermann S, Snell L, Mangtani P, Adetifa I, Lalvani A, Abubakar I. Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2014;349:g4643.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. WHO. Global tuberculosis report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.Google Scholar

2.17 Typhoid

  1. Acharya VI, Lowe CU, Thapa R, Gurubacharya VL, et al. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1101–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CATMAT. Statement on international travellers and typhoid: an advisory committee statement. 2014. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/aspc-phac/HP40-98-2014-eng.pdf.Google Scholar
  3. Connor BA, Schwartz E. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in travellers. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:623–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Rodriguez H, Contreras R. Comparative efficacy of two, three or four doses of Ty21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsules: a field trial in an endemic area. J Infect Dis. 1989;159:766–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Howlader DR, Koley H, Maiti S, Bhaumik U, Mukherjee P, Dutta S. A brief review on the immunological scenario and recent developmental status of vaccines against enteric fever. Vaccine. 2017;35(47):6359–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Judd MC, Mintz ED. Typhoid and Paratyphoid fever [updated May 31 2017]. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/typhoid-paratyphoid-fever. Accessed 24 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  7. Klugman K, Gilbertson IT, Kornhoff HJ, Robbins JB, et al. Protective activity of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever. Lancet. 1987;2:1165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lebacq E. Comparative tolerability and immunogenicity of Typherix or Typhim Vi in healthy adults: 0,12-month and 0, 24-month administration. BioDrugs. 2001;15(Suppl 1):5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Abrego P, Martin OS, et al. Duration of efficacy of Ty21a, attenuated Salmonella typhi live oral vaccine. Vaccine. 1999;17(Suppl 2):22–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Milligan R, Paul M, Richardson M, Neuberger A. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;(5):CD001261.Google Scholar
  11. Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, Lee JS, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, Kim YE, Park JK, Wierzba TF. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(10):e570–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Government Department of Health. http://www9.health.gov.au/cda/source/rpt_3_sel.cfm. Accessed Jun 2018.
  13. Ochiai RL, Acosta CJ, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Bhattacharya SK, et al. A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for control. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:260–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Seqirus Pty Ltd. Vivotif oral prescribing information. Aust R 158130. Date of approval 17 Feb 2017.Google Scholar
  15. Stubi CL, Landry PR, Petignat C, Bille J, et al. Compliance to live oral Ty21a typhoid vaccine, and its effect on viability. J Travel Med. 2000;7(3):133–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Waddington CS, Darton TC, Pollard AJ. The challenge of enteric fever. J Infect. 2014;68(Suppl 1):S38–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wain J, Hendriksen RS, Mikoleit ML, Keddy KH, Ochiai RL. Typhoid fever. Lancet. 2015;385(9973):1136–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. World Health Organization. Typhoid vaccines. WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2008;83(6):49–60.Google Scholar
  19. Zuckerman JN, Hatz C, Kantele A. Review of current typhoid fever vaccines, cross-protection against paratyphoid fever, and the European guidelines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2017;16(10):1029–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

2.18 Varicella Zoster Virus

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on immunization practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(3):103–8.Google Scholar
  2. Chaves SS, Gargiullo P, Zhang JX, Civen R, et al. Loss of vaccine-induced immunity to varicella over time. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1121–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhillon S, Curran M. Live attenuated measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus vaccine (Priorix-Tetra). Paediatr Drugs. 2008;10:337–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cunningham AL, Lal H, Koval M, et al. Efficacy of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine in adults 70 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:1019–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dooling KL, Guo A, Patel M, et al. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on immunization practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:103–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lal H, Cunningham AL, Godeaux O, et al. Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:2087–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Macartney K, Burgess M. Varicella vaccination in Australia and New Zealand. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(Suppl 2):S191–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Marin M, Guris D, Chaves S, Schmid S, Seward J. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on immunization practices (ACIP). Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(RR-4):1–40.Google Scholar
  9. Marin M, Meissner H, Seward J. Varicella prevention in the United States: a review of successes and challenges. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):e744–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance. Zoster vaccine for Australian adults: factsheet. August 2017.Google Scholar
  11. Sartori AM. A review of the varicella vaccine in immunocompromised individuals. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8:259–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Seward JF, Watson BM, Peterson CL, Mascola L, et al. Varicella disease after introduction of varicella vaccine in the United States, 1995–2000. JAMA. 2002;287:606–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Therapeutic Guidelines. Antibiotic (eTG June 2019 edition). Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited; 2019.Google Scholar
  14. Turner DP, McGuinness SL, Cohen J et al. Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: a retrospective audit. J Travel Med. 2017;24(3). tax011.Google Scholar

2.19 Yellow Fever

  1. Ahuka-Mundeke S, Casey RM, Harris JB, Dixon MG, Nsele PM, Kizito GM, et al. Immunogenicity of fractional-dose vaccine during a Yellow Fever outbreak—preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2018. [Epub ahead of print].  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1710430 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Government Department of Health. National Guidelines for Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres and Providers. Australia: Canberra; 2018. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-bio-yellow-fever.htm. Accessed 30 Nov 2018.Google Scholar
  3. Barnett ED. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(6):850–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barwick R. History of thymoma and yellow fever vaccination. Lancet. 2004;364(9438):936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campi-Azevedo AC, Costa-Pereira C, Antonelli LR, Fonseca CT, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Villela-Rezende G, et al. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016;12(2):491–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collaborative Group for Studies on Yellow Fever Vaccination. Duration of post-vaccination immunity against yellow fever in adults. Vaccine. 2014;32(39):4977–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cottin P, Niedrig M, Domingo C. Safety profile of the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril(R): a 17-year review. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12(11):1351–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. da Costa-Rocha IA, Campi-Azevedo AC, Peruhype-Magalhaes V, Coelho-Dos-Reis JG, Fradico JRB, Souza-Lopes T, et al. Duration of humoral and cellular immunity 8 years after administration of reduced doses of the 17DD-yellow fever vaccine. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1211.Google Scholar
  9. Garske T, Van Kerkhove MD, Yactayo S, Ronveaux O, Lewis RF, Staples JE, et al. Yellow Fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from outbreak and serological data. PLoS Med. 2014;11(5):e1001638.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gershman M, Staples JE. Yellow fever. In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/yellow-fever. Accessed 20 Aug 2019.Google Scholar
  11. Gotuzzo E, Yactayo S, Cordova E. Efficacy and duration of immunity after yellow fever vaccination: systematic review on the need for a booster every 10 years. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89(3):434–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamer DH, Angelo K, Caumes E, van Genderen PJJ, et al. Fatal Yellow fever in travelers to Brazil, 2018. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(11):340–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khromava AY, Eidex RB, Weld LH, Kohl KS, Bradshaw RD, Chen RT, et al. Yellow fever vaccine: an updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events. Vaccine. 2005;23(25):3256–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindsey NP, Schroeder BA, Miller ER, Braun MM, et al. Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination. Vaccine. 2008;26:6077–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marfin AA, Eidex RS, Kozarsky PE, Cetron MS. Yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis vaccines: indications and complications. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(1):151–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Vellozzi C, Mitchell T, Miller E, Casey CG, Eidex RB, Hayes EB. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and corticosteroid therapy: eleven United States cases, 1996-2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75(2):333–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monath TP. Suspected yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic adverse events (1973 and 1978), United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:919–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Monath TP, Cetron MS. Prevention of yellow fever in persons travelling to the tropics. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1369–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Monath TP, Cetron MS, McCarthy K, Nichols R, Archambault WT, Weld L, et al. Yellow fever 17D vaccine safety and immunogenicity in the elderly. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1(5):207–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Monath TP, Vasconcelos PF. Yellow fever. J Clin Virol. 2015;64:160–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Roukens AHE, van Halem K, de Visser AW, Visser LG. Long-term protection after fractional-dose yellow fever vaccination: follow-up study of a randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(11):761–5.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-1529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sidibe M, Yactayo S, Kalle A, Sall AA, Sow S, Ndoutabe M, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of yellow fever vaccine among 115 HIV-infected patients after a preventive immunisation campaign in Mali. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106(7):437–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Staples JE, Bocchini JA Jr, Rubin L, Fischer M, Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Yellow Fever vaccine booster doses: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(23):647–50.Google Scholar
  24. Tanizaki R, Ujiie M, Hori N, Kanagawa S, Kutsuna S, Takeshita N, et al. Comparative study of adverse events after yellow fever vaccination between elderly and non-elderly travellers: questionnaire survey in Japan over a 1-year period. J Travel Med. 2016;23(3). taw012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Veit O, Niedrig M, Chapuis-Taillard C, Cavassini M, Mossdorf E, Schmid P, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of yellow fever vaccination for 102 HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(5):659–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. World Health Organization. International travel and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Torresi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sarah McGuinness
    • 5
    • 6
  • Karin Leder
    • 7
    • 8
  • Daniel O’Brien
    • 9
    • 10
  • Tilman Ruff
    • 11
    • 12
  • Mike Starr
    • 13
  • Katherine Gibney
    • 14
  1. 1.Professor of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician University of Melbourne, Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyThe Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Knox Private HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Epworth Eastern HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Austin HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Infectious Diseases Physician, Department of Infectious DiseasesThe Alfred Hospital and Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.Lecturer, Infectious Disease Epidemiology UnitSchool of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  7. 7.Professor of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Head of Infectious Disease EpidemiologySchool of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  8. 8.Head of Travel Medicine and Immigrant Health, Victorian Infectious Disease ServiceRoyal Melbourne Hospital Peter Doherty, Institute for Infection and ImmunityMelbourneAustralia
  9. 9.Associate Professor, Victorian Infectious Diseases ServiceRoyal Melbourne HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  10. 10.Department of Infectious DiseasesUniversity Hospital GeelongGeelongAustralia
  11. 11.Associate Professor, Nossal Institute for Global HealthSchool of Population and Global Health, The University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  12. 12.International Medical Advisor, Australian Red Cross (1996–2019)Founding Head of Travel Medicine at Fairfield and Royal Melbourne HospitalsMelbourneAustralia
  13. 13.Paediatrician, Infectious Diseases Physician, Consultant in Emergency Medicine, Director of Paediatric Education, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  14. 14.Infectious Diseases Physician, Public Health Physician and Senior Research FellowThe Austin Hospital, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, and The University of Melbourne, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and ImmunityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations