Preliminary Comparison Among Recycling Rates for Developed and Developing Countries: The Case of India, Israel, Italy and USA

  • Francesco Di MariaEmail author
  • Ronald L. Mersky
  • Shira Daskal
  • Ofira Ayalon
  • Sadhan K. Ghosh
Conference paper


This paper examines the recycling rates for waste management systems implemented in different countries: India, Israel, Italy and USA. Recycling rates range from a minimum of about 20% for Israel up to about 44% for Italy. Indian recycling rates are affected by a large informal sector providing waste reuse and recycling at source (about 15%) and at waste collection sites (15%), even as >30% of produced waste is not collected. A high level of uncontrolled dumping up to 70% was found for India. Substantial differences were found in the legal and legislative frameworks for waste management. Absence of clear definitions and classifications of waste was detected for India and Israel leading to inconsistent data concerning the amount and composition of waste generated. With the exception of Italy, in all the other countries a lack of a fully implemented political, legal and economic scheme for supporting efficient management in the waste sector was detected.


Developed countries Developing countries Recycling rates Waste management 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Di Maria
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ronald L. Mersky
    • 4
    • 3
  • Shira Daskal
    • 5
    • 3
  • Ofira Ayalon
    • 5
    • 3
  • Sadhan K. Ghosh
    • 6
    • 3
  1. 1.LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di IngegneriaUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.CIMIS ConsortiumPerugiaItaly
  3. 3.Consortium of Researchers in International Collaboration (CRIC)KolkataIndia
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringWidener UniversityChesterUSA
  5. 5.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  6. 6.Jadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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