Periostin pp 63-72 | Cite as

Functions of Periostin in Dental Tissues and Its Role in Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

  • Juan Du
  • Minqi LiEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1132)


The goal of periodontal regeneration therapy is to reliably restore teeth’s supporting periodontal tissue, while aiding the formation of new connective tissue attached to the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers and new alveolar bone. Periostin is a matricellular protein, primarily expressed in the periosteum and PDL of adult mice. Its biological functions have been extensively studied in the fields of cardiovascular physiology and oncology. Despite being initially identified in bone and dental tissue, the function of Periostin in PDL and the pathophysiology associated with alveolar bone are scarcely studied. Recently, several studies have suggested that Periostin may be an important regulator of periodontal tissue formation. By promoting collagen fibrillogenesis and the migration of fibroblasts and osteoblasts, Periostin might play a key role in the regeneration of PDL and alveolar bone after periodontal surgery. In this chapter, the implications of Periostin in periodontal tissue biology and its potential use in periodontal tissue regeneration are reviewed.


Periostin Periodontium Periodontal ligament Alveolar bone Periodontal regeneration 


  1. 1.
    Takeshita S, Kikuno R, Tezuka K, Amann E (1993) Osteoblast-specific factor 2: cloning of a putative bone adhesion protein with homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. Biochem J 294(Pt 1):271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Horiuchi K, Amizuka N, Takeshita S, Takamatsu H, Katsuura M, Ozawa H, Toyama Y, Bonewald LF, Kudo A (1999) Identification and characterization of a novel protein, periostin, with restricted expression to periosteum and periodontal ligament and increased expression by transforming growth factor beta. J Bone Miner Res 14(7):1239–1249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Padial-Molina M, Marchesan JT, Taut AD, Jin Q, Giannobile WV, Rios HF (2012) Methods to validate tooth-supporting regenerative therapies. Methods Mol Biol 887:135–148. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Wang J, Maeda M, Rogers R, Krug E, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Conway SJ (2004) Periostin is expressed within the developing teeth at the sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Dyn 229(4):857–868. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suzuki H, Amizuka N, Kii I, Kawano Y, Nozawa-Inoue K, Suzuki A, Yoshie H, Kudo A, Maeda T (2004) Immunohistochemical localization of periostin in tooth and its surrounding tissues in mouse mandibles during development. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 281(2):1264–1275. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    An SY, Lee YJ, Neupane S, Jun JH, Kim JY, Lee Y, Choi KS, An CH, Suh JY, Shin HI, Sohn WJ, Kim JY (2017) Effects of vascular formation during alveolar bone process morphogenesis in mice. Histochem Cell Biol 148(4):435–443. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilde J, Yokozeki M, Terai K, Kudo A, Moriyama K (2003) The divergent expression of periostin mRNA in the periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement. Cell Tissue Res 312(3):345–351. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Afanador E, Yokozeki M, Oba Y, Kitase Y, Takahashi T, Kudo A, Moriyama K (2005) Messenger RNA expression of periostin and Twist transiently decrease by occlusal hypofunction in mouse periodontal ligament. Arch Oral Biol 50(12):1023–1031. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kudo A (2011) Periostin in fibrillogenesis for tissue regeneration: periostin actions inside and outside the cell. Cell Mol Life Sci 68(19):3201–3207. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tanabe H, Takayama I, Nishiyama T, Shimazaki M, Kii I, Li M, Amizuka N, Katsube K, Kudo A (2010) Periostin associates with Notch1 precursor to maintain Notch1 expression under a stress condition in mouse cells. PLoS One 5(8):e12234. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Norris RA, Damon B, Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Ramamurthi A, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Trusk T, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Davis J, Hoffman S, Wen X, Sugi Y, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Turner DK, Oka T, Conway SJ, Molkentin JD, Forgacs G, Markwald RR (2007) Periostin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis and the biomechanical properties of connective tissues. J Cell Biochem 101(3):695–711. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kii I, Nishiyama T, Li M, Matsumoto K, Saito M, Amizuka N, Kudo A (2010) Incorporation of tenascin-C into the extracellular matrix by periostin underlies an extracellular meshwork architecture. J Biol Chem 285(3):2028–2039. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maruhashi T, Kii I, Saito M, Kudo A (2010) Interaction between periostin and BMP-1 promotes proteolytic activation of lysyl oxidase. J Biol Chem 285(17):13294–13303. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gillan L, Matei D, Fishman DA, Gerbin CS, Karlan BY, Chang DD (2002) Periostin secreted by epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a ligand for alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(5) integrins and promotes cell motility. Cancer Res 62(18):5358–5364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ito T, Suzuki A, Imai E, Horimoto N, Ohnishi T, Daikuhara Y, Hori M (2002) Tornado extraction: a method to enrich and purify RNA from the nephrogenic zone of the neonatal rat kidney. Kidney Int 62(3):763–769. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Machnicki M, Rogers R, Markwald RR, Conway SJ (2001) Periostin (an osteoblast-specific factor) is expressed within the embryonic mouse heart during valve formation. Mech Dev 103(1–2):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moussad EE, Brigstock DR (2000) Connective tissue growth factor: what’s in a name? Mol Genet Metab 71(1–2):276–292. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rios H, Koushik SV, Wang H, Wang J, Zhou HM, Lindsley A, Rogers R, Chen Z, Maeda M, Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Feng JQ, Conway SJ (2005) Periostin null mice exhibit dwarfism, incisor enamel defects, and an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype. Mol Cell Biol 25(24):11131–11144. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shimazaki M, Nakamura K, Kii I, Kashima T, Amizuka N, Li M, Saito M, Fukuda K, Nishiyama T, Kitajima S, Saga Y, Fukayama M, Sata M, Kudo A (2008) Periostin is essential for cardiac healing after acute myocardial infarction. J Exp Med 205(2):295–303. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kii I, Amizuka N, Minqi L, Kitajima S, Saga Y, Kudo A (2006) Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein required for eruption of incisors in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342(3):766–772. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tabata C, Hongo H, Sasaki M, Hasegawa T, de Freitas PH, Yamada T, Yamamoto T, Suzuki R, Yamamoto T, Oda K, Li M, Kudo A, Iida J, Amizuka N (2014) Altered distribution of extracellular matrix proteins in the periodontal ligament of periostin-deficient mice. Histol Histopathol 29(6):731–742. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang F, Rong Z, Wang Z, Zhang Z, Sun D, Dong S, Xu J, Dai F (2017) Periostin promotes ectopic osteogenesis of CTLA4-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cell Tissue Res 370(1):143–151. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Florencio-Silva R, Sasso GR, Sasso-Cerri E, Simoes MJ, Cerri PS (2015) Biology of bone tissue: structure, function, and factors that influence bone cells. Biomed Res Int 2015:421746. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bonnet N, Lesclous P, Saffar JL, Ferrari S (2013) Zoledronate effects on systemic and jaw osteopenias in ovariectomized periostin-deficient mice. PLoS One 8(3):e58726. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bonnet N, Conway SJ, Ferrari SL (2012) Regulation of beta catenin signaling and parathyroid hormone anabolic effects in bone by the matricellular protein periostin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(37):15048–15053. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Litvin J, Selim AH, Montgomery MO, Lehmann K, Rico MC, Devlin H, Bednarik DP, Safadi FF (2004) Expression and function of periostin-isoforms in bone. J Cell Biochem 92(5):1044–1061. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cobo T, Viloria CG, Solares L, Fontanil T, Gonzalez-Chamorro E, De Carlos F, Cobo J, Cal S, Obaya AJ (2016) Role of Periostin in adhesion and migration of bone remodeling cells. PLoS One 11(1):e0147837. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu S, Barbe MF, Amin N, Rani S, Popoff SN, Safadi FF, Litvin J (2008) Immunolocalization of Periostin-like factor and Periostin during embryogenesis. J Histochem Cytochem 56(4):329–345. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Merle B, Bouet G, Rousseau JC, Bertholon C, Garnero P (2014) Periostin and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFbetaIp) are both expressed by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cell Biol Int 38(3):398–404. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gerbaix M, Vico L, Ferrari SL, Bonnet N (2015) Periostin expression contributes to cortical bone loss during unloading. Bone 71:94–100. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kato Y, Boskey A, Spevak L, Dallas M, Hori M, Bonewald LF (2001) Establishment of an osteoid preosteocyte-like cell MLO-A5 that spontaneously mineralizes in culture. J Bone Miner Res 16(9):1622–1633. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonnet N, Standley KN, Bianchi EN, Stadelmann V, Foti M, Conway SJ, Ferrari SL (2009) The matricellular protein periostin is required for sost inhibition and the anabolic response to mechanical loading and physical activity. J Biol Chem 284(51):35939–35950. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robling AG, Niziolek PJ, Baldridge LA, Condon KW, Allen MR, Alam I, Mantila SM, Gluhak-Heinrich J, Bellido TM, Harris SE, Turner CH (2008) Mechanical stimulation of bone in vivo reduces osteocyte expression of Sost/sclerostin. J Biol Chem 283(9):5866–5875. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ren Y, Han X, Ho SP, Harris SE, Cao Z, Economides AN, Qin C, Ke H, Liu M, Feng JQ (2015) Removal of SOST or blocking its product sclerostin rescues defects in the periodontitis mouse model. FASEB J 29(7):2702–2711. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rios HF, Ma D, Xie Y, Giannobile WV, Bonewald LF, Conway SJ, Feng JQ (2008) Periostin is essential for the integrity and function of the periodontal ligament during occlusal loading in mice. J Periodontol 79(8):1480–1490. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Choi JW, Arai C, Ishikawa M, Shimoda S, Nakamura Y (2011) Fiber system degradation, and periostin and connective tissue growth factor level reduction, in the periodontal ligament of teeth in the absence of masticatory load. J Periodontal Res 46(5):513–521. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lv S, Liu H, Cui J, Hasegawa T, Hongo H, Feng W, Li J, Sun B, Kudo A, Amizuka N, Li M (2014) Histochemical examination of cathepsin K, MMP1 and MMP2 in compressed periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement in periostin deficient mice. J Mol Histol 45(3):303–309. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li J, Feng W, Liu B, Sun B, Han X, Du J, Sun J, Yimin CJ, Guo J, Kudo A, Amizuka N, Li M (2015) Altered distribution of HMGB1 in the periodontal ligament of periostin-deficient mice subjected to Waldo’s orthodontic tooth movement. J Mol Histol 46(3):303–311. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rangiani A, Jing Y, Ren Y, Yadav S, Taylor R, Feng JQ (2016) Critical roles of periostin in the process of orthodontic tooth movement. Eur J Orthod 38(4):373–378. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Savage A, Eaton KA, Moles DR, Needleman I (2009) A systematic review of definitions of periodontitis and methods that have been used to identify this disease. J Clin Periodontol 36(6):458–467. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Park CH, Rios HF, Jin Q, Sugai JV, Padial-Molina M, Taut AD, Flanagan CL, Hollister SJ, Giannobile WV (2012) Tissue engineering bone-ligament complexes using fiber-guiding scaffolds. Biomaterials 33(1):137–145. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berahim Z, Moharamzadeh K, Jowett AK, Rawlinson A (2015) Evaluation of osteogenic and cementogenic potential of periodontal ligament fibroblast spheroids using a three-dimensional in vitro model of periodontium. Int J Dent 2015:605813. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Panduwawala CP, Zhan X, Dissanayaka WL, Samaranayake LP, Jin L, Zhang C (2017) In vivo periodontal tissue regeneration by periodontal ligament stem cells and endothelial cells in three-dimensional cell sheet constructs. J Periodontal Res 52(3):408–418. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Padial-Molina M, Volk SL, Rios HF (2015) Preliminary insight into the periostin leverage during periodontal tissue healing. J Clin Periodontol 42(8):764–772. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Larsson L, Decker AM, Nibali L, Pilipchuk SP, Berglundh T, Giannobile WV (2016) Regenerative medicine for periodontal and peri-implant diseases. J Dent Res 95(3):255–266. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Suarez-Lopez Del Amo F, Monje A, Padial-Molina M, Tang Z, Wang HL (2015) Biologic agents for periodontal regeneration and implant site development. Biomed Res Int 2015:957518. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bornstein P, Sage EH (2002) Matricellular proteins: extracellular modulators of cell function. Curr Opin Cell Biol 14(5):608–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Padial-Molina M, Volk SL, Rios HF (2014) Periostin increases migration and proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts challenged by tumor necrosis factor -alpha and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharides. J Periodontal Res 49(3):405–414. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Matsuzawa M, Arai C, Nomura Y, Murata T, Yamakoshi Y, Oida S, Hanada N, Nakamura Y (2015) Periostin of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts promotes migration of human mesenchymal stem cell through the alphavbeta3 integrin/FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway. J Periodontal Res 50(6):855–863. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Watanabe T, Yasue A, Fujihara S, Tanaka E (2012) PERIOSTIN regulates MMP-2 expression via the alphavbeta3 integrin/ERK pathway in human periodontal ligament cells. Arch Oral Biol 57(1):52–59. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nakazawa T, Nakajima A, Seki N, Okawa A, Kato M, Moriya H, Amizuka N, Einhorn TA, Yamazaki M (2004) Gene expression of periostin in the early stage of fracture healing detected by cDNA microarray analysis. J Orthop Res 22(3):520–525. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhu S, Barbe MF, Liu C, Hadjiargyrou M, Popoff SN, Rani S, Safadi FF, Litvin J (2009) Periostin-like-factor in osteogenesis. J Cell Physiol 218(3):584–592. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rani S, Barbe MF, Barr AE, Litivn J (2010) Role of TNF alpha and PLF in bone remodeling in a rat model of repetitive reaching and grasping. J Cell Physiol 225(1):152–167. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Heo SC, Shin WC, Lee MJ, Kim BR, Jang IH, Choi EJ, Lee JS, Kim JH (2015) Periostin accelerates bone healing mediated by human mesenchymal stem cell-embedded hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffold. PLoS One 10(3):e0116698. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ma D, Zhang R, Sun Y, Rios HF, Haruyama N, Han X, Kulkarni AB, Qin C, Feng JQ (2011) A novel role of periostin in postnatal tooth formation and mineralization. J Biol Chem 286(6):4302–4309. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandon Provincial HospitalShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Department of Bone Metabolism, School of Stomatology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue RegenerationShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations