Performance and Emission Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Ethanol and Its Blends with Jojoba Biodiesel and Diesel as a Fuel

  • Amanpreet SinghEmail author
  • Sandeep Singh
  • Varun Singla
  • Varinder Singh
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


An experimental study is conducted to determine the influence of ethanol to the blends of Jojoba biodiesel and diesel on the performance and emissions characteristics of a C.I. engine. The fuel blends used are denoted as D80–JME10–E10 (80% Diesel, 10% Jojoba Methyl Ester and 10% Ethanol) and D60–JME20–E20 (60% Diesel, 20% Jojoba Methyl Ester and 20% Ethanol). In this study, Jojoba Methyl Ester was prepared from the transesterification process. The properties of Jojoba methyl ester were evaluated and compared with the latest biodiesel standards. Also, performance and emissions characteristics were measured on a C.I. engine. The investigation shows that fuel blend D80–JME10–E10 gave an increment in BTE of 2.91% and reduction in BSFC of 3.61% than that of D60–JME20–E20 at full load respectively. Reduction in CO emissions of 9.3% and 12.2% was observed for fuel blends D80–JME10–E10 and D60–JME20–E20 as compared to diesel, at full load. Also, NOx emissions were reduced for the fuel blends D80–JME10–E10 and D60–JME20–E20 of about 40.2 and 28.6% as compared to diesel.


Ethanol Compression ignition Jojoba biodiesel Transesterification Brake thermal efficiency Carbon monoxide 


  1. 1.
    Fayyazbakhsh A, Pirouzfar V (2016) Investigating the influence of additives-fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions: analytical modeling and experimental validation. Fuel 171:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ruiz FA, Cadrazco M, López AF, Sanchez-Valdepeñas J, Agudelo JR (2015) Impact of dual-fuel combustion with n-butanol or hydrous ethanol on the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter. Fuel 161:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nalgundwar A, Paul B, Sharma SK (2016) Comparison of performance and emissions characteristics of DI CI engine fueled with dual biodiesel blends of palm and jatropha. Fuel 173:172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krishnan PN, Vasudevan D (2015) Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of variable compression ratio engine fuelled with biodiesel. Int J ChemTech Res 7(1):234–245Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abu-Hamdeh NH, Alnefaie KA (2015) A comparative study of almond and palm oils as two bio-diesel fuels for diesel engine in terms of emissions and performance. Fuel 150:318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ozturk Erkan (2015) Performance, emissions, combustion and injection characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with canola oil–hazelnut soapstock biodiesel mixture. Fuel Process Technol 129:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar P, Sharma MP, Dwivedi G (2016) Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance. Egyptian J Petroleum 25(2):255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yilmaz N, Vigil FM, Benalil K, Davis SM, Calva A (2014) Effect of biodiesel–butanol fuel blends on emissions and performance characteristics of a diesel engine. Fuel 135:46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saleh HE, Selim MY (2017) Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled by jojoba methyl ester-diesel-ethanol ternary blends. Fuel 207:690–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canoira L, Alcantara R, García-Martínez MJ, Carrasco J (2006) Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: Transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 30(1):76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sánchez M, Marchetti JM, El Boulifi N, Aracil J, Martínez M (2015) Kinetics of Jojoba oil methanolysis using a waste from fish industry as catalyst. Chem Eng J 262:640–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Widyan MI, Mu’taz A (2010) Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source. Energy Convers Manage 51(8):1702–1707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selim MY, Radwan MS, Saleh HE (2008) Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds. Renewable Energy 33(6):1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huzayyin AS, Bawady AH, Rady MA, Dawood A (2004) Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel. Energy Convers Manage 45:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shah NS, Sharma BK, Moser BR, Erhan SZ (2010) Preparation and evaluation of jojoba oil methyl esters as biodiesel and as blend components in ultra low sulphur diesel fuel. Bioenergy Res 3:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Al-Hamamre Z, Al-Salaymeh A (2014) Physical properties of (jojoba oil + biodiesel),(jojoba oil + diesel) and (biodiesel + diesel) blends. Fuel 123:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shehata MS, Abdel Razek SM (2011) Experimental investigation of diesel engine performance and emission characteristics using jojoba/diesel blend and sunflower oil. Fuel 90:886–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saleh HE (2009) Experimental study on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction running with jojoba methyl ester by exhaust gas recirculation. Fuel 88:1357–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Selim MYE, Radwan MS, Elfeky SM (2003) Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine. Renewable Energy 28:1401–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamdan MO, Selim MY (2016) Performance of CI engine operating with hydrogen supplement co-combustion with jojoba methyl ester. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41(24):10255–10264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Radwan MS, Ismail MA, Elfeky SMS, Abu-Elyazeed OSM (2007) Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: preparation and characterization. Appl Thermal Eng 27(2–3):314–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shah M, Ali S, Tariq M, Khalid N, Ahmad F, Khan MA (2014) Catalytic conversion of jojoba oil into biodiesel by organotin catalysts, spectroscopic and chromatographic characterization. Fuel 118:392–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Al Awad AS, Selim MY, Zeibak AF, Moussa R (2014) Jojoba ethyl ester production and properties of ethanol blends. Fuel 124:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Boulifi N, Sánchez M, Martínez M, Aracil J (2015) Fatty acid alkyl esters and monounsaturated alcohols production from jojoba oil using short-chain alcohols for biorefinery concepts. Industrial Crops Products 69:244–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gorski K, Smigins R (2014) Impact of ether/ethanol and biodiesel blends on combustion process of compression ignition engine. Energy 72:760–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Banapurmath NR, Khandal SV, Swamy RL, Chandrashekar TK (2015) Alcohol (ethanol and diethyl ethyl ether)-diesel blended fuels for diesel engine applications-a feasible solution. Adv Automobile Eng 4(1):1Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahir SA, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Imran A, Ashraful AM (2015) Performance and emission assessment of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol/bioethanol blend as a fuel in diesel engines: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 48:62–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheenkachorn K, Fungtammasan B (2009) Biodiesel as an additive for diesohol. Int J Green Energy 6:57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Randazzo ML, Sodré JR (2011) Exhaust emissions from a diesel powered vehicle fuelled by soybean biodiesel blends (B3–B20) with ethanol as an additive (B20E2–B20E5). Fuel 90(1):98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    He BQ, Shuai SJ, Wang JX, He H (2003) The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on emissions from a diesel engine. Atmospheric Environment 37:4965–4971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hossain ABMS, Mekheld MA (2010) Biodiesel fuel production from waste canola cooking oil as sustainable energy and environmental recycling process. Aust J Crop Sci 4(7):543–549Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Prakash R, Singh RK, Murugan S (2013) Experimental investigation on a diesel engine fueled with bio-oil derived from waste wood–biodiesel emulsions. Energy 55:610–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Qi DH, Chen H, Geng LM, Bian YZ (2011) Effect of diethyl ether and ethanol additives on the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel-diesel blended fuel engine. Renew Energy 36:1252–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ajav EA, Singh B, Bhattacharya TK (1998) Performance of a stationary diesel engine using vapourized ethanol as supplementary fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 15(6):493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanpreet Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sandeep Singh
    • 1
  • Varun Singla
    • 2
  • Varinder Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringI.K. Gujral Punjab Technical UniversityJalandharIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations