Advertisement

The Importance of Methanol–Gasoline Blend in Spark Ignition Engine—A Review

  • Keshav JangidEmail author
  • Vivek Verma
  • Velpula Surya
  • Rohit Gupta
  • Devendra Vashist
Conference paper
  • 477 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

The air pollution produced by motor vehicles is getting worse day by day especially in major cities in the world. A very high density of motor vehicle traffic on road and change in lifestyles of the people contributed largely to the increase of pollution. The emission produced by the vehicles must be reduced and controlled to prevent or minimize the air pollution problem. It is also essential to meet the particular country emission standards. The principal polluting agents in gasoline emissions are CO, NOx, hydrocarbons, etc. It was observed by various researchers that the fuel efficiency was improved by using a blend of methanol–gasoline in the gasoline engine. The methanol blend in gasoline was varied, and the performance of the engine regarding maximum output power and braking power was studied in several papers. The chemical and physical properties of the blend were also checked and reported. The present study aims to summarize the performance of methanol–gasoline blend used in spark ignition engine. The review is mainly focused on fuel properties, output power/torque, braking efficiency, emissions, etc. It was observed that the CO, NOx, smoke, and particulate matter (PM) concentration in exhaust gas reduced significantly, whereas the CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons emissions were increased after using the blended gasoline in the engine.

Keywords

Gasoline Methanol Engine Emissions 

Nomenclature

LHV

Lower heating value

RON

Research octane number

MON

Motor octane number

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

TWC

Three-way catalytic converters

M10/M20/M85 etc.

10%/20%/85% etc. methanol blend

BSEC

Brake specific energy consumption

CH3OH

Methanol

HCHO

Formaldehyde

SI

Spark ignition

CO

Carbon monoxide

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

PM

Particulate matter

GDI

Gasoline direct injected

PFI

Port fuel injected

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors wish to thank Dr. Anil from Accendere Knowledge Management Services, CL Educate for his valuable contribution in manuscript preparation.

References

  1. 1.
    Huang P, Ju H, Tan S, Wang H, Zhao T (2015) The future of methanol fuel: an analysis on the feasibility of methanol as an alternative fuel. ChileGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bata RM, Elrod AC, Rice RW (1989) Emissions from IC engines fueled with alcohol–gasoline blends: a literature review. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 111:424–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reed TB, Lerner RM (1973) Methanol: a versatile fuel for immediate use. Science 182:1299–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Qi DH, Liu SQ, Zhang, CH, Bian YZ (2005) Properties, performance, and emissions of methanol–gasoline blends in a spark ignition engine. In: Proceedings of the institution of mechanical engineers, Part D: journal of automobile engineering, vol 219, pp 405–412Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhao H, Ge Y, Hao C, Han X, Fu M, Yu L, Shah AN (2010) Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends. Sci Total Environ 408:3607–3613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canakci M, Ozsezen AN, Alptekin E, Eyidogan M (2013) Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the exhaust emission of an SI engine. Renew Energy 52:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shayan SB, Seyedpour SM, Ommi F, Moosavy SH, Alizadeh M (2011) Impact of methanol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of a SI engine. Int J Automot Eng 1:219–227Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siwale L, Kristóf L, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M, Kolesnikov A (2014) Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol additive in methanol–gasoline blend fired in a naturally-aspirated spark ignition engine. Fuel Process Technol 118:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Awad OI, Mamat R, Ali OM, Sidik NAC, Yusaf T, Kadirgama K, Kettner M (2018) Alcohol and ether as alternative fuels in spark ignition engine: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 82:2586–2605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schifter I, Diaz L, Gonzalez U, Gonzalez-Macias C, Mejía-Centeno I (2018) The effects of addition of co-solvents on the physicochemical properties of gasoline–methanol blended fuels. Int J Engine Res.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087418757855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jackson MD, Ward PF (2013) Demonstrating the feasibility of methanol gasoline blends to reduce petroleum use in the United States. Fuel Freedom Foundation, Irvine, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eyidogan M, Ozsezen AN, Canakci M, Turkcan A (2010) Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an SI engine. Fuel 89:2713–2720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu S, Clemente ERC, Hu T, Wei Y (2007) Study of spark ignition engine fueled with methanol/gasoline fuel blends. Appl Therm Eng 27:1904–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yanju W, Shenghua L, Hongsong L, Rui Y, Jie L, Ying W (2008) Effects of methanol/gasoline blends on a spark ignition engine performance and emissions. Energy Fuels 22:1254–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abu-Zaid M, Badran O, Yamin J (2004) Effect of methanol addition on the performance of spark ignition engines. Energy Fuels 18:312–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agarwal AK, Karare H, Dhar A (2014) Combustion, performance, emissions and particulate characterization of a methanol–gasoline blend (gasohol) fuelled medium duty spark ignition transportation engine. Fuel Process Technol 121:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bilgin A, Sezer I (2008) Effects of methanol addition to gasoline on the performance and fuel cost of a spark ignition engine. Energy Fuels 22:2782–2788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sayin C, Ozsezen AN, Canakci M (2010) The influence of operating parameters on the performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine using methanol-blended-diesel fuel. Fuel 89:1407–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Canakci M, Sayin C, Ozsezen AN, Turkcan A (2009) Effect of injection pressure on the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with methanol-blended diesel fuel. Energy Fuels 23:2908–2920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sapre AR (1988) Properties, performance and emissions of medium concentration methanol–gasoline blends in a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine. SAE Trans, 1105–1126Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liao SY, Jiang DM, Cheng Q, Huang ZH, Zeng K (2006) Effect of methanol addition into gasoline on the combustion characteristics at relatively low temperatures. Energy Fuels 20:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elfasakhany A (2017) Investigations on performance and pollutant emissions of spark-ignition engines fueled with n-butanol−, isobutanol−, ethanol−, methanol−, and acetone–gasoline blends: a comparative study. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 71:404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fan Z, Xia Z, Shijin S, Jianhua X, Jianxin W (2009) Unregulated emissions and combustion characteristics of low-content methanol− gasoline blended fuels. Energy Fuels 24:1283–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wei Y, Liu S, Liu F, Liu J, Zhu Z, Li G (2009) Formaldehyde and methanol emissions from a methanol/gasoline-fueled spark-ignition (SI) engine. Energy Fuels 23:3313–3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen H, Yanga L, Zhanga P, Li J, Geng L, Ma Z (2014) Formaldehyde emissions of gasoline mixed with alcohol fuels and influence factors. Jordan J Mech Ind Eng 8Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wei Y, Liu S, Liu F, Liu J, Zhu Z, Li G (2010) Direct measurement of formaldehyde and methanol emissions from gasohol engine via pulsed discharge helium ionization detector. Fuel 89:2179–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang F, Shuai S, Wang Z, Zhang X, Wang J (2011) A detailed oxidation mechanism for the prediction of formaldehyde emission from methanol–gasoline SI engines. Proc Combust Inst 33:3151–3158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang C-J, Jackson RB (2012) China’s growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment. Energy Policy 41:878–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olah GA (2005) Beyond oil and gas: the methanol economy. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:2636–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vale A (2007) Methanol. Medicine (Baltimore) 35:633–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yüksel F, Yüksel B (2004) The use of ethanol–gasoline blend as a fuel in an SI engine. Renew Energy 29:1181–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Furey RL, Perry KL (1991) Composition and reactivity of fuel vapor emissions from gasoline-oxygenate blends. J Fuels Lubr 100:1257–1271Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coelho EP, Moles CW, dos Santos MA, Barwick M, Chiarelli PM (1996) Fuel injection components developed for Brazilian fuels. In: Presented at the SAE Brasil 96 V international mobility technology conference and exhibitGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Naegeli DW, Lacey PI, Alger MJ, Endicott DL (1997) Surface corrosion in ethanol fuel pumps. In: Presented at the international spring fuels and lubricants meeting and expositionGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Methanol use in gasoline-blending, storage and handling of gasoline containing methanol. Methanol InstituteGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    El-Emam SH, Desoky AA (1985) A study on the combustion of alternative fuels in spark-ignition engines. Int J Hydrog Energy 10:497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gabele P (1995) Exhaust emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 45:770–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yao D, Ling X, Wu F (2016) Experimental investigation on the emissions of a port fuel injection spark ignition engine fueled with methanol–gasoline blends. Energy Fuels 30:7428–7434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gong C-M, Li J, Li J-K, Li W-X, Gao Q, Liu X-J (2011) Effects of ambient temperature on firing behavior and unregulated emissions of spark-ignition methanol and liquefied petroleum gas/methanol engines during cold start. Fuel 90:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhao H, Ge Y, Tan J, Yin H, Guo J, Zhao W, Dai P (2011) Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends. J Environ Sci 23:1831–1838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liang B, Ge Y, Tan J, Han X, Gao L, Hao L, Ye W, Dai P (2013) Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. J Aerosol Sci 57:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Automobile EngineeringManav Rachna International Institute of Research and StudiesFaridabadIndia

Personalised recommendations