Water and Carbon Dynamics in Eastern Siberia: Introduction

  • Takeshi OhtaEmail author
  • Trofim C. Maximov
  • Alexander N. Fedorov
  • Alexey R. Desyatkin
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 236)


In this chapter, we describe the background for water and carbon dynamics in eastern Siberia. This chapter consists of two parts: (1) the climate, permafrost, and vegetation conditions in eastern Siberia and (2) research on water and carbon dynamics conducted within the former Soviet Union. The hydrological and meteorological systems in eastern Siberia are characterised by cool temperatures, especially in winter, and low precipitation. The history of water and carbon dynamics research in eastern Siberia includes many discoveries that are relatively new to people outside of Russia due to long-standing barriers between social systems. Thus, these research findings began to contribute to global understanding only in the second half of the 1990s. This chapter will provide a more comprehensive understanding of discoveries in water and carbon dioxide dynamics in eastern Siberia made by researchers in Russia, Japan, and other countries.


‘Vegetation-permafrost’ symbiotic system Water and carbon dynamics Hydrological system Meteorological system Permafrost Vegetation 


  1. Abolin RI (1929) Geobotanical and soil description Leno-Vilyui plains. USSR Academy of Science, Leningrad, p 378. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Arneth A, Makkonen R, Olin S, Paasonen P, Holst T, Kajos MK, Kulmala M, Maximov TC, Miller PA, Schurgers G (2016) Future vegetation-climate interactions in Eastern Siberia: an assessment of the competing effects of CO2 and secondary organic aerosols. Atmos Chem Phys 16:5243–5262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldocchi D, Kelliher FM, Black TA, Jarvis P (2000) Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange. Glob Chang Biol 6:69–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balobaev VT (1963) Thawing of frozen ground in interaction with the atmosphere. In: Heat and mass exchange in frozen soils and rocks. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp 105–123. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Balobaev VT (1991) Geothermal of frozen zone of lithosphere in Northern Asia. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 194. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Blagovidov NL (1935) Quaternary deposits, climate and soils of Tyung river basin. Works of Natural Resources Study Council. Yakutia series, vol 18, p 128. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Bonan GB (1995) Land-atmosphere CO2 exchange simulated by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model. J Geophys Res 100:2817–2831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonan GB, Shugart HH (1989) Environmental factors and ecological processes in boreal forests. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonan GB, Pollard D, Thompson SL (1992) Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate. Nature 359:716–718. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bosikov NP, Vasiliev IS, Fedorov AN (1985) Permafrost landscapes of reclaimed zone of Leno-Aldan interfluve. Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, p 124. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. Brown J, Grave NA (1981) The surface disturbance and its protection during economic development of northern areas. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 88. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Carlson AE, Winsor K (2012) Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet responses to pat climate warming. Nat Geosci 5:607–613. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ch K, Diemer M (1987) In situ photosynthetic responses to light, temperature and carbon dioxide in herbaceous plants from low and high altitude. Funct Ecol 1:179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Desyatkin RV (2008) Soil formation in thermokarst depressions – alases of cryolithozone. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 324. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J (1994) Carbon pools and flux if global forest ecosystems. Science 263:185–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dolenko GI (1913) The Lena River valley near Yakutsk. In: Glinka KD (ed) Preliminary report of Russian Asia soil investigation organization and fulfillment in 1912. Publishing house of Erlikh Yu. N, St. Petersburg, pp 221–224. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. Dolenko GI (1916) The parts of the Lena-Vilyui basin of Yakutskaya oblast. In: Glinka KD (ed) Preliminary report ofRussian Asia soil investigation organization and fulfillment in 1914. Publishing house of Kollins A.E, St. Petersburg, pp 251–262. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. Drobov VP (1914) Vegetation of Yakutsk-Ust Maya road region of Yakutskaya oblast. Publishing house of Kollins A.E, St. Petersburg, p 251. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. Elovskaya LG (1987) Classification and diagnostics of permafrost soils of Yakutia. Yakut branch of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, 172p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Ensminger I, Sveshnikov D, Campbell DA, Funk C, Jansson S, Lloyd J, Shibistova O, Oquist G (2004) Intermittent low temperatures constrain spring recovery of photosynthesis in boreal Scots pine forests. Glob Chang Biol 10:995–1008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ermakov N, Cherosov M, Gogoleva R (2002) Classification of ultracontinental boreal forests in central Yakutia. Folia Geobot 37:419–440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fedorov AN (1985) The role of logging in the permafrost landscapes development in Central Yakutia. Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, pp 111–117. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. Feldman GM (1984) Thermokarst and permafrost. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 261. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  24. Feldman GM, Tetelbaum AS, Shender NI, Gavriliev RI (1988) Handbook of temperature forecast of the soils in Yakutia. Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, p 240. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. Fotiev SM (1965) Groundwater and permafrost of the South Yakutian coal-bearing basin. Nauka, Moscow, p 230. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. Fotiev SM, Danilova NS, Sheveleva NS (1974) Geocryological conditions of the Middle Siberia. Nauka, Moscow, p 148. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. Gavrilova MK (1967) Thermal balance of larch forests in Leno-Amga interfluve area. Hydroclimatic research in the forests of Siberia. Nauka, Moscow, pp 28–52. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  28. Gavrilova MK (1973) Climate of Central Yakutia. 2nd edn. Book Publishing House, Yakutsk, p 120. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  29. Gavrilova MK (1978) Climate and long-term freezing of rocks. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 214. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Gavrilova MK (1981) Recent climate and permafrost on the continents. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 112. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Gavrilova MK (1987) Analysis of climatic conditions in Yakutia to the beginning of the next century. In: Natural conditions in the reclaimed regions of Siberia. Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, pp 146–159. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. Gerasimov IP (1952) Modern remnants of late glaciations phenomena near the coldest region of the world. News of Academy of Science of USSR. Geography series, vol 5, pp 16–22. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  33. Gerasimov IP (1985) Ecological problems of past, present and future geography of the world. Наука, Мoscow. p 247. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Glinka KD (1923) Soils of Russia and surrounding countries. Moscow. p 348Google Scholar
  35. Glinka KD (1927) Essay of Yakutia soils. Yakutia, pp 131–164. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Gower ST, Krankina O, Olson RJ, Apps M, Kinder S, Wang C (2001) Net promary production and carbon allocation patterns if boreal forest ecosystwm. Ecol Appl 11:1395–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grave NA (1979) Principles of surface sensitivity evaluation on anthropogenic impacts. In: Nature protection of Yakutia. Yakutsk branch of USSR Academy of Sciences, pp 91–94. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. Grave NA, Gavrilova MK, Gravis GF (1964) Freezing of Earth surface and glaciation of Syntar-Hayata (Eastern Yakutia). Nauka, Moscow, p 143. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. Greene DF, Zasada JC, Sirois L, Kneeshaw D, Morin H, Charron I, Simard M-J (1999) A review of the regeneration dynamics of Northern American boreal tree species. Can J For Res 29:824–839. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grigoriev NF (1966) Permafrost in littoral zone of Yakutia. Nauka, Moscow, p 180. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Halldin S, Gryning S-E, Gottschalk L, Jochom A, Lundin L-C, van de Griend AA (1999) Energy, water and carbon exchange in a boreal forest landscape – NOPEX experiences. Agric For Meteorol 98–99:5–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hiyama T, Ohta T, Sugimoto A, Yamazaki T, Oshima K, Yonenobu H, Yamamoto K, Kotani A, Park H, Kodama Y, Hatta S, Fedorov AN, Maximov TC (2013) Changes in eco-hydrological systems under recent climate change in eastern Siberia. IAHS Publ 360:155–160.
  43. Huh Y, Panteleyev G, Babich D, Zaitsev A, Edmond JM (1998) The fluvial geochemistry of rivers of Eastern Siberia: II. Tributaries of the Lena, Omoloy, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Anadyr draining the collisional/accretionary zone of the Verkhoyansk and Cherskiy ranges. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:2053–2075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huntington TG (2006) Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. J Hydrol 319:83–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iijima Y, Fedorov AN, Park H, Suzuki K, Yabuki H, Maximov TC, Ohata T (2010) Abrupt increases in soil temperature following increased precipitation in a permafrost region, central Lena River basin, Russia. Permafr Periglac Process 21:30–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ivanov MS (1984) The cryogenic structure of Quaternary deposits of the Leno-Aldan depression. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 125. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Ivanova EI (1965) Permafrost-taiga soils of Northern Yakutia. Pochvovedenie 7:1–14. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Ivanova EI (1971) Soils of Central Yakutia. Pochvovedenie 9:3–17. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Karavaeva NA (1969) Tundra soils of Northern Yakutia. PhD thesis, Moscow, p 205. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. Katasonov EM (1954) Lithology of frozen Quaternary deposits of the Yana coastal lowland. Thesis of Candidate of geology-mineralogical science, Moscow, p 26. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Katasonov EM, Ivanov MS, Pudov GG. 1979 In: Katasonov (ed) The structure and absolute geochronology of alas deposits in Central Yakutia. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 95. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. Kelliher FM, Hollinger DY, Schulze E-D, Vygodskaya NN, Byers JN, Hunt JE, McSeveny TM, Milukova I, Sogatchev A, Varlargon A, Ziegler W, Arneth A, Bauer G (1997) Evaporation from an eastern Siberian larch forest. Agric For Meteorol 85:135–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kondratieva KA, Fotiev SM, Danilova NS (1989) Geocryology USSR. In: Ershov (ed) Middle Siberia. Nedra, Moscow, p 413. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Kondratieva KA, Afanasenko VE, Gavrilov AV (1996) Geocryological map of the USSR. Scale 1:2 500 000. Edited by Ershov.Central Department of Geodesy and Cartography, Vinnitca, 16p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  55. Konorovskiy AK (1984) Soils of the northern zone of Small Baikal-Amur Mainline. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 121. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  56. Krasyuk AA, Ognev GN (1927) The soils of the Lena-Aldan watershed. Materials of the Commission to explore Yakutian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, p 176. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Kuznetsova IL (1980) Engineering and permafrost conditions and the stability of the permafrost in coastal lowlands of Yakutia to disturbances of the natural environment. In: Stability of the surface to anthropogenic influences in the permafrost. Permafrost Institute, Yakutsk, pp 75–107. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Lawford RG, Stewart R, Roads J, Isemer H-J, Manton M, Marengo J, Yasunari T, Benedict S, Koike T, Williams S (2004) Advancing global- and continental-scale hydrometeorology: contributions of GEWEX hydrometeorology panel. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 85:1917–1930. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liang M, Sugimoto A, Tei A, Bragin IV, Takano S, Morozumi T, Shingubara R, Maximov TC, Kiyashko SI, Velivetskaya TA, Ignatiev AV (2014) Importance of soil moisture and N availability to larch growth and distribution in Arctic taiga-tundra boundary ecosystem, northeastern Siberia. Pol Sci 8:327–341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liu HY, Yin Y (2013) Response of forest distribution to past climate change: an insight into future predictions. Chin Sci Bull 58:4426–4436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lugovoi PN (1970) Features of the mountain permafrost regions condition. Nauka, Moscow, p 135. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  62. Luyssaert S, Inglima I, Jung M, Richardson D, Reichstein M, Papale D, Piao SL, Schulze E-D, Wingate L, Matteucci G, Aragao L, Aubinet M, Beer C, Bernhofer C, Black KG, Bonal D, Bonnefond J-M, Chamber J, Ciais P, Cook B, Davis KJ, Dolman AJ, Gielen B, Goulden M, Grace J, Granier A, Grelle A, Griffis T, Grunwald T, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Harding R, Hollonger DY, Hutyra LR, Kolar P, Kruijt B, Lagergren F, Laurila T, Law BE, Lemaire G, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Malhi Y, Mateus J, Migliavacca M, Misson L, Montagnani L, Moncrieff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Nikinmaa E, Ollinger SV, Pita G, Rebmann C, Roupsard O, Saigusa N, Sanz MJ, Seufert G, Sierra C, Smith M-L, Tang J, Valentini R, Vesala T, Janssens IA (2007) CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from global dataset. Glob Chang Biol 13:2509–2537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Malhi Y, Baldocchi DD, Jarvis PG (1999) The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Plant Cell Environ 22:715–740. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mazilkin IA (1956) Microbiological characteristics of sod-forest and humus-carbonate soils of Olyokminsky district in Yakut ASSR. Materials on the environmental conditions and agriculture of south-western Yakutia. AS USSR, Moscow, pp 134–175. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  65. McGuire AD, Wirth C, Apps M, Beringer J, Clein J, Epstein H, Kicklighter DW, Bhatti J, Chapin FS III, de Groot B, Efremov D, Eugster W, Fukuda M, Gower T, Hinzman L, Huntley B, Jia GJ, Kasischke E, Melillo J, Romanovsky V, Shvidenko A, Vaganov E, Walker D (2002) Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes. J Veg Sci 13:301–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melnikov PI, Efimov AI (1953) Experience of exploitation of groundwater in the permafrost area in Central Yakutia. USSP Academy of Science, Moscow, p 33. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Middendorf AF (1862) Journey to the North and East of Siberia: North and East of Siberia in a natural historical sense. St. Petersburg. Imperial Acad Sci 1(3):489. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Moors E, Dolman AJ, Maximov TC (2004) Overview of joint research at Spasskaya Pad as part of the PINMATRA and TCOS-Siberia programmes. In: Proceeding of the international semi-open workshop “C/H2O/Energy balance and climate over boreal regions with special emphasis on eastern Eurasia”, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  69. Naumov EM, Gradusov BV (1974) Features of taiga soil formation on the Far North-East of Eurasia. Kolos, Moscow, p 147. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. Nekrasov IA (1976) Permafrost of the North-East and the South of Siberia and the regularities of its development. Book Publishing House, Yakutsk, p 246. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  71. Nekrasov IA, Deviatkin VN (1974) Morphology of the Yana River basin Cryolithozone and adjacent areas. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 72. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  72. Nekrasov IA, Maksimov EV, Klimovskii IV (1973). The last glaciation and permafrost of south of Verkhoyansk region. Book Publishing House, Yakutsk, p 151. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Nichol CJ, Lloyd J, Olgahibistova O, Arneth A, Roser C, Knohl A, Matsubara S, Grace J (2002) Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of a Siberian boreal forest. Tellus 54B:677–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ohta T (2010) Hydrological aspects in a Siberian larch forest. In: Osawa A (ed) Permafrost ecosystems. Springer, London, pp 245–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ohta T, Hiyama T, Tanaka H, Kuwada T, Maximov TC, Ohata T, Fukushima Y (2001) Seasonal variation in the energy and water exchanges above and below a larch forest in eastern Siberia. Hydrol Process 15:1459–1476. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Osawa A, Zyryanova OA, Matsuura Y, Kajimoto T, Wein RW (2010) Permafrost ecosystems – Siberian larch forests, Ecological studies, vol 209. Springer, London, p 502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ospennikov EN, Trush NI, Chizhov AB, Chizhova NI (1980) Exogenous geological processes and phenomena (South Yakutia). Moscow State University, Moscow, p 226. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  78. Pozdnyakov LK (1961) Forests in the up-stream flow of Yana river, vol 7. AS USSR, Moscow, pp 142–162. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  79. Pozdnyakov LK (1963) Hydroclimatic regime of larch forests of Central Yakutia. AS USSR, Moscow, p 146. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. Pozdnyakov LK (1975) Daurian larch. Nauka, Moscow, p 310. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  81. Romanovskii NN, Gavrilov AV, Zaitsev VN (1989) Geocryology USSR. In: Ershov (ed) Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Nedra, Moscow, p 516. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  82. Sachs T, Wille C, Boike J, Kutzbach L (2008) Environmental controls on ecosystem-scale CH4 emission from polygonal tundra in the Lena River Delta. Sib J Geophys Res 113:G00A03. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sakai A (1983) Comparatively study on freezing resistance of conifers with special reference to cold adaptation and its evolutive aspects. Can J Bot 63:156–160Google Scholar
  84. Savvinov DD (1971) Thermal and water regimes of forest soils of Yakutia. Studies on vegetation and soils in the forests of north-eastern USSR. Yakutsk, pp 118–175. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  85. Savvinov DD (2013) Physics of permafrost soils. Nauka, Novosibirsk. p 504. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  86. Savvinov DD, Sleptsov VI (1987) Characteristics and modes of permafrost pale soils. YF SB AS USSR, Yakutsk, p 128. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  87. Schulze E-D, Vygodskaya NN, Tchebakova NM, Czimczik CI, Kozlov DN, Lloyd J, Mollicone D, Parfenova E, Sidorov KN, Varlagin AV, Wirth C (2002) The Eurosiberian transect: an introduction to the experimental region. Tellus 54B:421–428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sellers P, Hall F, Margolis H, Kelly B, Baldocchi D, den Hartog G, Cihlar J, Ryan MG, Godison B, Crill P, Ranson KJ, Lettenmair D, Wickland DE (1995) The boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 76:1549–1577.<1549:TBESAO>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shashko DI (1961) Climatic conditions of agriculture in Central Yakutia. AS USSR, Moscow, p 264. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  90. Shtatov VI (1952) Methods for determining the biological activity of soil. VASKHNIL report 6, p 27. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  91. Shumsky PA (1952) The study of fossil ice in Central Yakutia. In: Investigation of permafrost in the Yakutskaya ASSR, vol 3. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp 142–161. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  92. Shur YL (1988) The upper horizon of permafrost and thermokarst. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 213. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  93. Shvetsov PF (1968) The regularities of hydrogeological processes in the Far North and North-East of the USSR. Nauka, Moscow, p 111. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  94. Soloviev PA (1959) Permafrost of northern part of the Lena-Amga interfluve. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, p 144. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  95. Stashenko AI (1987a) Evaluation of environmental stability of permafrost areas to anthropogenic influences. Lett USSR Geograph Soc 119(4):301–306. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  96. Stashenko AI (1987b) Study of transformation of permafrost conditions during of reclamation of forest natural complexes in the south of the Central Yakutia. In: Grechishev (ed) Cryogenic physio-geological processes and methods for the study their development. USSR’s Scientific Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Moscow, pp 93–100 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  97. Suzuki R, Xu J, Motoya K (2006) Global analyses of satellite-derived vegetation index related to climatological wetness and warmth. Int J Climatol 26:425–438. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Targulian VO (1971) Soil formation and weathering in cold humid areas. Nauka, Moscow, p 268. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  99. Tchebakave NM, Kolle O, Zolotoukhine D, Arneth A, Styles JM, Vygodskaya NN, Schulze E-D, Shibistova O, Lloyd J (2002) Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy and water vapour fluxes above a pine sylvestris forest in the Siberian middle taiga. Tellus 54B:537–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tolstikhin ON (1974) Icing and underground waters of the USSR’s North-East. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 164. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  101. Trush NI, Chizhov AB, Chizhova NI (1975) South Yakutia. Edited by. Kudryavtsev.Moscow State University, Moscow, p 444. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  102. Tsyplenkin EI (1946) Agrotechnics of crops in the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Yakutsk Publishing House, p 91. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  103. Utkin AI (1960) About natural regeneration of Larch duarica in Central Yakutia. Forestry 12:64–68. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  104. van Huissteden J, Dolman AJ (2012) Soil carbon in the Arctic and permafrost carbon feedback. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4:545–551. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. van Huissteden J, Maximov TC, Dolman AJ (2005) High methane flux from an arctic floodplain (Indigirka lowland, eastern Siberia). J Geophys Res 110:G02002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vasiliev IS (1982) The regularities seasonal thawing in Eastern. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 133. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  107. Velichko A, Spasskaya I (2002) Climatic change and the development of landscape. In: Shahgedanova M (ed) The physical geography of northern Eurasia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 36–69Google Scholar
  108. Volotovskaya TN, Savvinov GN (1988) Biological activity of permafrost-affected meadow-chernozemic soils of Amga river valley. In: Hydrothermic problems of permafrost soils. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 128. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  109. Votyakov IN (1961) Physical and mechanical properties of permafrost grounds of Central Yakutia. USSR Academy of Science, Moscow, p 63. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  110. Xu L, Baldocchi DD (2003) Seasonal trends in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. Tree Physiol 23:865–877. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Yasunari T (2007) Role of land-atmosphere interaction on Asian monsoon climate. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 85B:55–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zolnikov VG (1954a) Topography and soil forming rocks in the eastern part of Central Yakutia. In: Materials on environmental conditions and agriculture in Central Yakutia. AS USSR, Moscow, pp 7–54. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  113. Zolnikov VG (1954b) Soils in the eastern part of Central Yakutia and their applying. In: Materials on environmental conditions and agriculture in Central Yakutia. AS USSR, Moscow, pp 7–54. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  114. Zolnikov VG (1957) Soils in Lensky and Olyokminsky regions of Yakutia and perspectives of their agricultural use. In: Materials on environmental conditions and agriculture in the South-West of Yakut ASSR, vol 2, AS USSR, Moscow, p 113. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  115. Zolnikov VG, Elovskaya LG, Teterina LV, Chernyak EI (1962) Soils of Vilyui basin and its applying. AS USSR, Moscow, p 204. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  116. Zubrilov V (1891) About mineral in Yakutsk region. The memorial book of the Yakutsk region for 1891. Yakutsk Printing-Office, Yakutsk, pp 129–148. (in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeshi Ohta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Trofim C. Maximov
    • 2
  • Alexander N. Fedorov
    • 3
  • Alexey R. Desyatkin
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Institute for Biological Problems of CryolithozoneRASYakutskRussia
  3. 3.Melnikov Permafrost InstituteRASYakutskRussia

Personalised recommendations