Impact of Air–Sea Interface Effects and Bubble and Particulate Scattering on Underwater Light Field Distribution: An Implication to Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System

  • Rashmita Sahoo
  • Palanisamy ShanmugamEmail author
  • Sanjay Kumar Sahu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 546)


A study of the effects of air–sea interface, bubble and particulate scattering, and medium inhomogeneity on the underwater light field distribution, downwelling irradiance (Ed) was carried out theoretically using Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique. The downwelling irradiance was computed for different scenarios (with and without waves and bubble effects) and compared with the in situ measured values. The wave effect was included according to a model given by Cox and Munk and the effect of bubble was included by estimating the Bidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function (BTDF) of a bubble layer. Furthermore, the effect of the variation of particulate concentration along the vertically downward direction on downwelling irradiance was studied by stratifying the underwater medium, instead of considering homogeneous water column, for the calculation of Ed. The findings showed the importance of considering the air–sea interface (wave and bubble) effects and stratification in estimating the underwater light field distribution and thereby the channel characteristics of an Underwater Wireless Optical Communication (UWOC) system. In particular, the present study can be helpful to researchers and engineers in modelling the effects of air–sea interface, bubble scattering and particulate scattering on the power budget, channel impulse response and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a vertical communication link between aerial and underwater platforms.


Monte Carlo method (MC) Downwelling irradiance (EdUnderwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system Channel characteristics 


  1. 1.
    Wang C, Tan J, Lai Q (2016) The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue–green light transmission in the upper ocean: an exploratory approach. Mod Phys Lett B 30(36):1650420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hieronymi M (2013) Monte Carlo code for the study of the dynamic light field at the wavy atmosphere-ocean interface. J Eur Opt Soc Rap Public 8:13039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sahu SK, Shanmugam P (2018) A theoretical study on the impact of particle scattering on the channel characteristics of underwater optical communication system. Opt Commun 408:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sahu SK, Shanmugam P (2017) A study on the effect of scattering properties of marine particles on underwater optical wireless communication channel characteristics. In: OCEANS 2017, Aberdeen, 19 Jun 2017. IEEE, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cox C, Munk W (1956) Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter. Scripps Inst OceanogrGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ma L, Wang F, Wang C, Wang C, Tan J (2015) Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance and BRDF of the bubble layer in the upper ocean. Opt Expr 23(19):24274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tang S, Zhang X, Dong Y (2013) On impulse response for underwater wireless optical links. In: OCEANS-Bergen, 2013 MTS/IEEE, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cox Jr WC (2012) Simulation, modeling, and design of underwater optical communication systems. North Carolina State UniversityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashmita Sahoo
    • 1
  • Palanisamy Shanmugam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjay Kumar Sahu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ocean EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations