Performance Evaluation of Transparent and Non-transparent Flexible Antennas

  • Maitri Kantharia
  • Arpan DesaiEmail author
  • Parthesh Mankodi
  • Trushit Upadhyaya
  • Riki Patel
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 546)


Performance evaluation of transparent and non-transparent flexible wearable antennas using different substrates is analysed and presented over here. Substrate in the form of PET and jeans is used, whereas conductive materials like AgHT-4 and Copper sheet are used as patch and ground, respectively. Performance evaluation in terms of S11, gain and radiation pattern is presented. PET which is transparent in nature is embedded with AgHT-4 to make a flexible transparent antenna. Jeans is used with copper sheet to design a non-transparent antenna. The electrical conductivity of copper is higher compared to AgHT-4, which leads to higher gain and return loss but it has a disadvantage of being non-transparent. The transparent flexible antenna resonates at 2.42 and 3.88 GHz making it suitable for its use in WLAN and WiMAX applications.


Flexible Transparent Non-transparent Wearable Antenna Wireless applications 



The authors would like to thank the management of Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Gujarat for their continuous support and encouragement.


  1. 1.
    Constantine. A. Balanis. Antenna theory: analysis and design, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Upadhyaya TK, Dwivedi VV, Kosta SP, Kosta YP (2012) Miniaturization of tri band patch antenna using metamaterials. In: IEEE fourth international conference on computational intelligence and communication networks (CICN), pp 45–48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gnanagurunathan G, Selvan KT (2017) Metamaterial-based planar antennas. In: Prabaharan S, Thalmann N, Kanchana Bhaaskaran V (eds) Frontiers in electronic technologies. Lecture notes in electrical engineering, vol 433. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhatt S, Mankodi P, Desai A, Patel R (2017) Analysis of ultra wideband fractal antenna designs and their applications for wireless communication: a survey. In: International conference on inventive systems and control (ICISC), Coimbatore, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhong S, Yan X, Liang X (2008) UWB planar antenna technology. In: Front Electr Electron Eng China 3:136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Archevapanich T, Lertwatechakul M, Rakluea P, Anantrasirichai N, Chutchavong V (2014) Ultra-wideband slot antenna on flexible substrate for WLAN/WiMAX/UWB applications. In: Tanaka S, Hasegawa K, Xu R, Sakamoto N, Turner SJ (eds) AsiaSim. Communications in computer and information science. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cotton S, Scanlon W, Madahar B (2009) Millimeter-wave soldier-to-soldier communications for covert battlefield operations. Commun Mag 47(10):72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rao S et al (2014) Miniature implantable and wearable on-body antennas: towards the new era of wireless body-centric systems antenna applications corner. IEEE Antennas Propag Mag 56(1):271–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Forsythe EW et al (2015) Flexible electronics for commercial and defense applications. In: International electron devices meeting (IEDM), Washington, DC. IEEE, pp 19.1.1–19.1.4Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haj-Omar A, Thompson WL, Kim YS, Coleman TP (2016) Adaptive flexible antennas for wireless biomedical applications. In: 17th annual wireless and microwave technology conference (WAMICON), Clearwater, FL. IEEE, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Porter E, Bahrami H, Santorelli A, Gosselin B, Rusch LA, Popovic M (2016) A wearable microwave antenna array for time-domain breast tumour screening. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. IEEECrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herbert S, Loh T, Wassell I (2014) Assessment of a low-profile planar antenna for a wireless sensor network monitoring the local water distribution network. In: IET wireless sensor systems. IEEECrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kiourti A, Volakis JL (2016) Wearable antennas using electronic textiles for RF communications and medical monitoring. In: 10th European conference on antennas and propagation (EuCAP), Davos. IEEE, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klemm M, Troster G (2006) Textile UWB antenna for on body communications. In: First European conference on antennas and propagation (Eucap). IEEE, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saeed SM, Balanis CA, Birtcher CR, Durgun AC, Shaman HN (2017) Wearable flexible reconfigurable antenna integrated with artificial magnetic conductor. In: Antennas and wireless propagation letters, vol 1. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hertleer C, Rogier H, Vallozzi L, Van Langenhove L (2009) A textile antenna for off-body communication integrated into protective clothing for firefighters. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 57:919–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar R, Kumar P, Gupta N, Dubey R (2017) Experimental investigations of wearable antenna on flexible perforated plastic substrate. In: IEEE microwave and optical technology lettersGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abbasi QH, Rehman MU, Yang X, Alomainy A, Qaraqe K, Serpedin E (2013) Ultrawideband band-notched flexible antenna for wearable applications. IEEE Antennas Wirel Propag Lett 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Archevapanich T, Lertwatechakul M, Rakluea P, Anantrasirichai N, Chutchavong V, Tanaka S et al (eds.) (2014) Ultra-wideband slot antenna on flexible substrate for WLAN/WiMAX/UWB applications. In: Asian Simulation Conference. AsiaSim 2014, CCIS 474. Springer, Berlin, pp 116–126Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdullah M, Khan A (2015) Multiband wearable textile antenna for I.S.M body center communication systems. In: XXth international seminar/workshop on direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic and acoustic wave theory (DIPED). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saeed SM, Balanis CA, Birtcher CR, Durgun AC, Shaman HN (2016) Wearable flexible reconfigurable antenna integrated with artificial magnetic conductor. In: Antennas and wireless propagation letters, vol 2. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Christina G, Rajeswari A, Lavanya M, Keerthana J, Ilamathi K, Manoranjitha V (2016) Design and development of wearable antennas for tele-medicine applications. In: International conference on communication and signal processing. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoon HK, Yoon YJ, Kim H, Lee C-H (2011) Flexible ultra-wideband polarization diversity antenna with band-notch function. Int J Antennas Propag 5(12):1463–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ali M, Khan I (2014) Wearable antenna design for FM radio. In: Springer Arab J Sci Eng 39(8):6189–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Desai A, Upadhyaya T, Palandoken M, Patel R, Patel U (2017) Dual band optically transparent antenna for wireless applications. In: IEEE Asia pacific microwave conference, Kualalumpur, Malaysia, 13–16 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patel RH, Desai A, Upadhyaya T (2015) A discussion on electrically small antenna property. Microw Opt Technol Lett 57:2386–2388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patel R, Upadhyaya T (2017) Compact planar dual band antenna for WLAN application. Prog Electromagn Res Lett 70CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maitri Kantharia
    • 1
  • Arpan Desai
    • 2
    Email author
  • Parthesh Mankodi
    • 1
  • Trushit Upadhyaya
    • 2
  • Riki Patel
    • 2
  1. 1.G. H. Patel College of Engineering and TechnologyAnandIndia
  2. 2.Charotar University of Science and TechnologyChangaIndia

Personalised recommendations