Advertisement

Strategies to Improve Agriculture Sustainability, Soil Fertility and Enhancement of Farmers Income for the Economic Development

  • Priyanka Verma
  • Dheer Singh
  • Ishwar Prasad Pathania
  • Komal Aggarwal
Chapter

Abstract

India is an agricultural country, 70% people depend on agriculture, because the only major means of farmer’s income is agriculture. Intensive agriculture practiced without observance to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and reduction of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Additional, even with food availability through production, millions of marginal farming and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution such as pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. Indian farmers are becoming poor due to the daily deterioration in agriculture, the main reasons for this, not receiving quality based seeds, delay water irrigation, reduced soil fertility and excessive use of chemical fertilizers. In order to remove these problems, we have been to develop a new strategy which will double the income of the farmers and make the soil fertile without the use of chemical fertilizers. Our government is constantly trying for it, which help farmers to get maximum benefit and improve our agriculture from launch new schemes for water, seed, nutrients and insurance the crops are started and organizing time to time a mega fair for providing basic knowledge for the farmers. So that more and more farmers are aware of it and use good machinery, seeds, and biofertilizers in their agriculture, so that their income accompanied, soil fertility can also be increased. Agricultural research are constantly probing fertile seeds, improve nutrition and organic fertilizers which will help us to grow agriculture. Fifty decades before came green revolution, which improved crops yield and productivity, while today need to be evergreen revolution for agricultural improvement, for doubling farmers income, enhance crop productivity and also improve soil fertility. The principles, strategies, models for sustainable agriculture and pathways for doubling farmers income are described in this book chapter.

Keywords

Crop yields Evergreen revolution Farmers income Sustainable agriculture strategy 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Department of Microbiology, Akal College of Basic Science, Eternal University, Himachal Pradesh and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science and Technology for providing the facilities and financial support.

References

  1. Aayog N (2015) Raising agricultural productivity and making farming remunerative for farmers. Occasional Paper NITI Aayog, Government of India, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed N (2008) Pesticide use in periurban environment. Introductory paper at the Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, pp 1–61Google Scholar
  3. Alexandratos N (1999) World food and agriculture: outlook for the medium and longer term. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:5908–5914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altieri MA (2018) Agroecology: the science of sustainable agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altieri MA, Faminow MD (1996) Agroecology: the science of sustainable agriculture. Can J Agric Econ 44:199–201Google Scholar
  6. Anderson RS, Levy E, Morrison B (1991) Rice science and development politics: Research strategies and IRRI's technology confront Asian diversity (1950-1980). Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Aziz MA (2005) Country report, Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Asia regional workshop on the implementation, monitoring and observance of the international code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, FAO of UN, pp 26–28Google Scholar
  8. Balfour EB (1943) The living soil. Faber and Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartelmus P (1986) Environment and development. Allen & Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Birdsey R, Cannell M, Galinski W, Gintings A, Hamburg S, Jallow B (2000) IPCC special report on land use, land-use change and forestry. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  11. Bond WJ (1998) Effluent irrigation—an environmental challenge for soil science. Soil Res 36:543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouwer H (2002) Integrated water management for the 21st century: problems and solutions. J Irrig Drain Eng 128:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bragg S (2005) Assessment of ‘win win’ case studies of resource management in agriculture. Environment Agency, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Bunch R (1988) Case study 5: guinope integrated development program, Honduras. In: The greening of aid: sustainable livelihoods in practice. Earthscan, London, pp 40–44Google Scholar
  15. Bunch R (1999) More productivity with fewer external inputs: Central American case studies of agroecological development and their broader implications. Environ Dev Sustain 1:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burney JA, Davis SJ, Lobell DB (2010) Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:12052–12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Byerlee D, Diao X, Jackson CP (2005) Agriculture, rural development, and pro-poor growth: country experiences in the post-reform era. Agriculture & Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Caporali F, Mancinelli R, Campiglia E (2003) Indicators of cropping system diversity in organic and conventional farms in Central Italy. Int J Agric Sustain 1:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carney D (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: what contribution can we make. Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter H (1989) Agricultural sustainability: an overview and research assessment. Calif Agric 43:16–18Google Scholar
  22. Cassman KG (1999) Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:5952–5959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cassman KG, Pingali PL (1995) Intensification of irrigated rice systems: learning from the past to meet future challenges. GeoJournal 35:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cassman KG, Dobermann A, Walters DT (2002) Agroecosystems, nitrogen-use efficiency, and nitrogen management. AMBIO: A J Hum Environ 31:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cassman KG, Dobermann A, Walters DT, Yang H (2003) Meeting cereal demand while protecting natural resources and improving environmental quality. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:315–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CGIAR (2015) Sustainable agriculture productivity growth and bridging the gap for small-family farms. Bioversity; CGIAR Consortium; Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); UN High Level Task Force on the Food Security Crisis; World Food Programme (WFP); World Bank; World Trade Organization (WTO)Google Scholar
  27. Chand R (2017) Doubling farmers’ income rationale, strategy, prospects and action plan. NITI Policy Paper No. 1/2017, MarchGoogle Scholar
  28. Charles D (2001) Seeds of discontent. Science 294:772–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cicerone RJ, Oremland RS (1988) Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochem Cycle 2:299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen JE, Fedoroff NV (1999) Colloquium on plants and population: is there time? Nat Acad Sci, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. Coleman JS (1991) Grundlagen der Sozialtheorie. Band 1: Handlungen und Handlungssysteme, München/WienGoogle Scholar
  32. Conway G (1985) Agroecosystem analysis. Agric Adm 20:31–55Google Scholar
  33. Conway G (1998) The doubly green revolution. Biologist Inst Biol 45:85–86Google Scholar
  34. Conway GR, Pretty JN (2013) Unwelcome harvest: agriculture and pollution. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Costanza R et al (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cottingham R (2013) Case study 8 dry-season gardening projects, Niger. In: The greening of aid: sustainable livelihoods in practice. Earthscan, London, p 69Google Scholar
  37. Council NR (1999a) Nature’s numbers: expanding the national economic accounts to include the environment. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Council NR (1999b) Our common journey: a transition toward sustainability. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  39. Cox T, Picone C, Jackson W (2004) Research priorities in natural systems agriculture. J Crop Improv 12:511–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dalgaard T, Halberg N, Kristensen IS (1998) Can organic farming help to reduce N-losses. Nutr Cycle Agroecosys 52:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Datt G, Ravallion M (1998) Farm productivity and rural poverty in India. J Dev Stud 34:62–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. DeVries J, Toenniessen GH (2001) Securing the harvest: biotechnology, breeding, and seed systems for African crops. CABI Publishing, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dicks MR (1992) What will be required to guarantee the sustainability of US agriculture in the 21st century. Am J Altern Agric 7:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dirzo R, Raven PH (2003) Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:137–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dobbs T, Becker D, Taylor D (1990) Sustainable agriculture policy analyses: south Dakota on-farm case studies. J Farming Syst Res Ext 2:109–124Google Scholar
  46. Dobermann A, Cassman KG (2005) Cereal area and nitrogen use efficiency are drivers of future nitrogen fertilizer consumption. Sci China Ser C Life Sci 48:745–758Google Scholar
  47. Dobermann A, Nelson R, Beever D, Bergvinson D, Crowley E, Denning G, Giller K, d’Arros Hughes J, Jahn M, Lynam J (2013) Solutions for sustainable agriculture and food systems. United Nations sustainable development solutions network. France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. Downing JA, Baker JL, Diaz RJ, Prato T, Rabalais NN, Zimmerman RJ (1999) Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: land and sea interactions. Task Force Rep 134:44Google Scholar
  49. Dynesius M, Nilsson C (1994) Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science 266:753–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. El-Ashry MT, Duda AM (1999) Future perspectives on agricultural drainage. Agric Drain:1285–1298Google Scholar
  51. Fan S, Hazell P, Thorat S (2000) Government spending, growth and poverty in rural India. Am J Agric Econ 82:1038–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. FAO (2003) Fertilizer Requirements in 2015 and 2030. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  53. FAO (2005) Country report for Bangladesh. In Proceedings Asia regional workshop, implementation, monitoring and observance, International Code of Conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, Bangkok, Thailand, 26–28 July 2005. RAP Publication 2005/29Google Scholar
  54. Ferrier H, Shaw G, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Boobis A, Elliott P (2006) Assessment of uncertainty in a probabilistic model of consumer exposure to pesticide residues in food. Food Addit Contam 23:601–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fischer R, Edmeades GO (2010) Breeding and cereal yield progress. Crop Sci 50:S-85–S-98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Foresight U (2011) The future of food and farming. Final Project Report. The Government Office for Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Francis CA, King JW (1988) Cropping systems based on farm-derived, renewable resources. Agric Syst 27:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Galloway JN, Hiram Levy I, Kasibhatla PS (1994) Year 2020: consequences of population growth and development on deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio 23(2):120–123Google Scholar
  59. Ghassemi F, Jakeman AJ, Nix HA (1995) Salinisation of land and water resources: human causes, extent, management and case studies. UNSW Press/CAB International, Sydney/WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Gleick PH (1993) Water and conflict: fresh water resources and international security. Int Secur 18:79–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gliessman SR (2004) Integrating agroecological processes into cropping systems research. J Crop Improv 11:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gliessman SR (2005) Agroecology and agroecosystems. In: The Earthscan reader in sustainable agriculture. Routledge, London, pp 104–114Google Scholar
  63. Godfray HC, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(5967):812–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goodman D, Watts M, Watts MJ (1997) Globalising food: agrarian questions and global restructuring. Routledge, LandonGoogle Scholar
  65. Gorbach SL (2001) Antimicrobial use in animal feed—time to stop. N Engl J Med 345:1202–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Green RE, Cornell SJ, Scharlemann JP, Balmford A (2005) Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hall SJ, Matson PA, Roth PM (1996) NOx emissions from soil: implications for air quality modeling in agricultural regions. Annu Rev Energy Environ 21:311–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harrison P (1987) The greening of Africa. Breaking through in the battle for land and food. Paladin, London, p 215Google Scholar
  69. Hatfield JL, Sauer TJ, Prueger JH (2001) Managing soils to achieve greater water use efficiency. Agron J 93:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hauptli H, Katz D, Thomas BR, Goodman RM (1990) Biotechnology and crop breeding for sustainable agriculture. Sustain Agric Syst:141–156Google Scholar
  71. Helalia AM, El-Amir S, Abou-Zeid S, Zaghloul K (1992) Bio-reclamation of saline-sodic soil by Amshot grass in northern Egypt. Soil Tillage Res 22:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hesiod M, Morrissey C (1983) Theogony/works and days, shield. (trans: Athanassakis AN). The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore/LondonGoogle Scholar
  73. Hinchcliffe F, Thompson J, Pretty JN (1996) Sustainable agriculture and food security in east and Southern Africa. Report for the Committee on Food Security in East and Southern Africa, Swedish International Agency for International Cooperation, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  74. Hinchcliffe F, Thompson J, Pretty J, Guijt I, Shah P (1999) Fertile ground: the impacts of participatory watershed management. IT Publication, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Howarth RW et al (1996) Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. In: Nitrogen cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean and its watersheds. Springer, Wallingford, pp 75–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Irz X, Lin L, Thirtle C, Wiggins S (2001) Agricultural productivity growth and poverty alleviation. Dev Policy Rev 19:449–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. KangMin L (1992) Rice-fish farming systems in China: past, present and future. In: dela Cruz C, Lightfoot C, Costa-Pierce B, Carangal V, Bimbao M (eds) Rice-fish research and development in Asia, ICLARM Conf. Proc. 24. ICLARM, Manila, pp 17–26Google Scholar
  78. Kesavan P, Swaminathan M (2008) Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 363(1492):877–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kibblewhite M, Ritz K, Swift M (2008) Soil health in agricultural systems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 363:685–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lamkin N (1994) Organic farming. Farming Press, IpswichGoogle Scholar
  81. Li W (2001) Agro-ecological farming systems in China, Man and the biosphere series, vol 26. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  82. Lobell DB, Cassman KG, Field CB (2009) Crop yield gaps: their importance, magnitudes, and causes. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:179–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lockeretz W (1988) Open questions in sustainable agriculture. Am J Altern Agric 3:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Løes A-K, Øgaard AF (2003) Concentrations of soil potassium after long-term organic dairy production. Int J Agric Sustain 1:14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MacRae RJ, Hill SB, Mehuys GR, Henning J (1990) Farm-scale agronomic and economic conversion from conventional to sustainable agriculture. In: Advances in agronomy, vol 43. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 155–198Google Scholar
  86. Madden P (1987) Can sustainable agriculture be profitable? Environ Sci Policy Sustain Dev 29:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Matson P, Billow C, Hall S, Zachariassen J (1996) Fertilization practices and soil variations control nitrogen oxide emissions from tropical sugar cane. J Geophys Res Atmos 101:18533–18545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Matson PA, Naylor R, Ortiz-Monasterio I (1998) Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science 280:112–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McNeely JA, Scherr SJ (2001) Common ground, common future: how ecoagriculture can help feed the world and save wild biodiversity. IUCN, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  90. McNeely JA, Scherr SJ (2003) Ecoagriculture: strategies to feed the world and save wild biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  91. Mellor JW (2000) Faster more equitable growth: the relation between growth in agriculture and poverty reduction. Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  92. Meyer-Aurich A (2005) Economic and environmental analysis of sustainable farming practices–a Bavarian case study. Agricultural Systems 86:190–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Minten B, Barrett CB (2008) Agricultural technology, productivity, and poverty in Madagascar. World Dev 36:797–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mintz SW, Du Bois CM (2002) The anthropology of food and eating. Annu Rev Anthropol 31:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Morison J, Baker N, Mullineaux P, Davies W (2008) Improving water use in crop production. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 363:639–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Muyanga M, Jayne TS, Burke WJ (2013) Pathways into and out of poverty: a study of rural household wealth dynamics in Kenya. J Dev Stud 49:1358–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Myers R, Palm C, Cuevas E, Gunatilleke I, Brossard M (1994) The synchronisation of nutrient mineralisation and plant nutrient demand. In: Woomer PI, Swift MJ (eds) The biological management of tropical soil fertility. Wiley-Sayce, Chichester/New York, pp 81–116Google Scholar
  98. Naylor RL (1996) Energy and resource constraints on intensive agricultural production. Annu Rev Energy Environ 21:99–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. O’Connell PF (1990) Policy development for the low-input sustainable agriculture program. Sustain Agric Syst:453–458Google Scholar
  100. Odum EP (1997) Ecology: a bridge between science and society. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  101. Oldeman LR (1992) Global extent of soil degradation. In: Bi-annual report 1991–1992/ISRIC. ISRIC, Wageningen, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  102. Ortiz R (1998) Critical role of plant biotechnology for the genetic improvement of food crops: perspectives for the next millennium. Electron J Biotechnol 1:16–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Oster J (2000) Irrigation sustainability. In: 6th international micro-irrigation congress (micro 2000), Cape Town, South Africa, 22–27 October 2000. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), pp 1–10Google Scholar
  104. Oweis T (1999) Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water use efficiency in dry areas, Vol 7. IWMI, Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  105. Palumbi SR (2001) Humans as the world’s greatest evolutionary force. Science 293:1786–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Peng S, Garcia F, Laza R, Sanico A, Visperas R, Cassman K (1996) Increased N-use efficiency using a chlorophyll meter on high-yielding irrigated rice. Field Crop Res 47:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pimentel D, Krummel J, Gallahan D, Hough J, Merrill A, Schreiner I, Vittum P, Koziol F, Back E, Yen D, Fiance S (1978) Benefits and costs of pesticide use in US food production. Bioscience 28:772–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pimentel D, Acquay H, Biltonen M, Rice P, Silva M, Nelson J, Lipner V, Giordano S, Horowitz A, D’amore M (1992) Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. Bioscience 42:750–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pimentel D, McLaughlin L, Zepp A, Lakitan B, Kraus T, Kleinman P, Vancini F, Roach WJ, Graap E, Keeton WS, Selig G (1993) Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use in agriculture. In: Agriculture and the environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pinstrup-Andersen P, Pandya-Lorch R (1996) Food for all in 2020: can the world be fed without damaging the environment. Environ Conserv 23:226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Postel S (1999) Pillar of sand: can the irrigation miracle last. WW Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. Postel SL, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (1996) Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science 271:785–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pretty JN (1995) Regenerating agriculture: policies and practice for sustainability and self-reliance. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  114. Pretty J (2005) The Earthscan reader in sustainable agriculture. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  115. Pretty J, Ball A (2001) Agricultural influences on carbon emissions and sequestration: a review of evidence and the emerging trading options. Centre for Environment and Society occasional paper 3, p 31Google Scholar
  116. Pretty J, Hine R (2005) Pesticide use and the environment. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  117. Pretty J, Uphoff N (2001) Human dimensions of agroecological development. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  118. Pretty J, Waibel H (2005) Paying the price: the full cost of pesticides the pesticide detox. Earthscan, London, pp 39–54Google Scholar
  119. Pretty J, Ward H (2001) Social capital and the environment. World Dev 29:209–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pretty JN, Morison JI, Hine RE (2003) Reducing food poverty by increasing agricultural sustainability in developing countries. Agric Ecosyst Environ 95:217–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Putnam RD, Leonardi R, Nanetti RY (1994) Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Qadir M, Oster J (2002) Vegetative bioremediation of calcareous sodic soils: history, mechanisms, and evaluation. Irrig Sci 21:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Raka S, Singh N, Balaji S, Ahuja U, Deepika J (2017) Strategy for doubling income of farmers in India. Policy paper-National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research strategy for doubling income of farmers in India. Policy paper 31Google Scholar
  124. Rengasamy S, Devavaram J, Prasad R, Erskine A, Balamurugan P, High C (2000) The land without a farmer becomes barren (thaan vuzhu nilam thariso), Speech, Ezhil Nagar, Madurai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  125. Rhoades J (1999) Use of saline drainage water for irrigation. 1 vol agriculturaldra. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  126. Robertson GP (1997) Nitrogen use efficiency in row-crop agriculture: crop nitrogen use and soil nitrogen loss. Ecol Agric:347–365Google Scholar
  127. Rodale R, Wagner R (1990) Finding the middle of the road on sustainability. J Prod Agric 3:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ruttan VW (1999) The transition to agricultural sustainability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:5960–5967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ruttan VW (2002) Productivity growth in world agriculture: sources and constraints. J Econ Perspect 16:161–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sandra P (1997) Last oasis, facing water scarcity. WW Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. Scherr SJ, McNeely JA (2008) Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 363:477–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Scoones I (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis. Working Paper 72, Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, UKGoogle Scholar
  133. Seckler D, Barker R, Amarasinghe U (1999) Water scarcity in the twenty-first century. Int J Water Resour D 15:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sendhil R, Kumar A, Singh S, Chatrath R, Singh G (2017a) Framework for doubling the income of wheat producers’ by 2022: trends, pathway and drivers. Indian J Econ Dev 13:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sendhil R, Ramasundaram P, Balaji S (2017b) Transforming Indian agriculture: is doubling farmers’ income by 2022 in the realm of reality. Curr Sci 113:848Google Scholar
  136. Shah P, Shah MK (1999) Institutional strengthening for watershed development: the case of the AKRSP in India fertile ground: the impacts of participatory watershed development. IT Publication, LondonGoogle Scholar
  137. Shalhevet J (1994) Using water of marginal quality for crop production: major issues. Agric Water Mange 25:233–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sharma I, Chatrath R, Sendhil R (2013) Challenges, target and strategies for sustainable wheat production for food security and nutrition. Indian Farming 63Google Scholar
  139. Shiva V (1991) The violence of the Green Revolution. Third world agriculture, ecology, and politics, The other India, GoaGoogle Scholar
  140. Smil V (1999) Nitrogen in crop production: an account of global flows. Global Biogeochem Cycle 13:647–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Smith KE et al (1999) Quinolone-resistant campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992–1998 New England. J Med 340:1525–1532Google Scholar
  142. Stinner BR, House GJ (1987) Role of ecology in lower-input, sustainable agriculture: an introduction. Am J Altern Agric 2:146–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Stinner BR, House GJ (1989) The search for sustainable agroecosystems. J Soil Water Conserv 44:111–116Google Scholar
  144. Swaminathan M (1999) A century of hope: towards an era of harmony with nature and freedom from hunger. East West Books (Madras) Pvt. Ltd, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  145. Swaminathan M (2000) Towards an evergreen revolution in agriculture. Nutr News 8:8Google Scholar
  146. Swift MJ, Izac AM, Van Noordwijk M (2004) Biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes—are we asking the right questions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:113–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tilman D et al (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Timmer CP (1995) Getting agriculture moving: do markets provide the right signals. Food Policy 20:455–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tomich TP et al (2004) Policy analysis and environmental problems at different scales: asking the right questions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Travisi CM, Nijkamp P, Vindigni G (2006) Pesticide risk valuation in empirical economics: a comparative approach. Ecol Econ 56:455–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Trewavas A (2002) Malthus foiled again and again. Nature 418:668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Uphoff N (2000) Understanding social capital: learning from the analysis and experience of participation social capital: a multifaceted perspective. UNSW Press/CAB, Sydney/Wallingford, pp 215–249Google Scholar
  154. Uphoff N (2002) Agroecological innovations. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  155. Varshney A (1998) Democracy, development, and the countryside: urban-rural struggles in India. Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  156. Vitousek PM, Matson PA (1993) Agriculture, the global nitrogen cycle, and trace gas flux. In: Biogeochemistry of global change. Springer, Boston, pp 193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vitousek PM et al (1997a) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar
  158. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997b) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wallace J (2000) Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Weil RR (1990) Defining and using the concept of sustainable agriculture. J Agron Educ 19:126–130Google Scholar
  161. WHO (1990) Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. WHO, Geneva (in preparation)Google Scholar
  162. Wichelns D (2002) An economic perspective on the potential gains from improvements in irrigation water management. Agric Water Manag 52:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. York E (1991) Agricultural sustainability and its implications to the horticulture profession and the ability to meet global food needs. HortScience 26:1252–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Zandstra H (1994) Sustainability and productivity growth: issues, objectives and knowledge needs. Guidelines for working groups. Reconciling Sustainability with Productivity Growth. Report of a workshop, Gainesville, Florida, May 1993, University of Florida and Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyanka Verma
    • 1
  • Dheer Singh
    • 2
  • Ishwar Prasad Pathania
    • 3
  • Komal Aggarwal
    • 4
  1. 1.Eternal UniversitySirmaurIndia
  2. 2.Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj UniversityKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Sharda UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  4. 4.Gautam Buddha UniversityGreater NoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations