Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia (IND)
Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is a pathological condition in which hyperplasia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses occurs, causing clinical symptoms resembling that of Hirschsprung’s disease despite distinct histological differences. Reports of IND occurring independently, or isolated IND, vary between 0.3% and 62% of all suction rectal biopsies worldwide . In addition, IND can occur in conjunction with other gastrointestinal neuropathies. This condition in which IND coexists with another gastrointestinal disorder is referred to as associated IND. IND is typically associated with Hirschsprung’s disease (HD), and the reported incidence varies from 20% to 66% . Moreover, Fadda et al. further separated IND into two distinct subtypes based on both clinical and histological conditions. These subtypes are referred to as IND Type A and IND Type B .
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