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Diabetes-Related Neuropathies

Abstract

With an estimate of 350 million people in the world having diabetes by the year 2030, diabetes will be an enormous cause of neuropathy. Approximately 50% of those people developing diabetes will develop a clinically significant neuropathy. In addition, the increase in prediabetes prevalence, and the associated increase in neuropathy risk in that cohort, suggests an epidemic of neuropathy that is going to be a challenge for the healthcare system to handle. The majority of individuals with diabetic neuropathy have type 2 diabetes (~95%), although large numbers of individuals with prediabetes are at risk for any associated distal neuropathy as well. Typically individuals with type 1 diabetes do not develop neuropathy until at least 5 years after diagnosis, while those individuals with type 2 diabetes may have neuropathy at the time of diagnosis. Neuropathies can vary in clinical presentation from a distal symmetric neuropathy, mononeuropathy, cranial neuropathy, plexus neuropathy, or even autonomic neuropathy. In this chapter, the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the various diabetes-related neuropathies are reviewed.

Keywords

  • Prediabetes
  • Distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • Mixed distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • Distal symmetric small fiber neuropathy
  • Cardiac autonomic neuropathy
  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)
  • Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes
  • Diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathy
  • Mononeuropathy
  • Cranial neuropathy
  • Screening guideline
  • American Diabetes Association

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Fig. 6.1

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Gibbons, C.H. (2019). Diabetes-Related Neuropathies. In: Hsieh, ST., Anand, P., Gibbons, C., Sommer, C. (eds) Small Fiber Neuropathy and Related Syndromes: Pain and Neurodegeneration. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3546-4_6

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