Constructed Wetlands: A Clean-Green Technology for Degradation and Detoxification of Industrial Wastewaters

  • Sardar Khan
  • Javed Nawab
  • Muhammad Waqas


Constructed wetlands (CWs) have played a significant role in the purification and treatment of domestic, mining, agricultural, and industrial wastewater in the last few decades. CWs are designed and constructed on engineered systems to develop the natural processes involving wetland soils, flora, and their related microbial accumulations to support wastewater treatment. The CWs, therefore, present environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and favorable substitute for industrial wastewater treatment. Several techniques have been used in the removal of contaminants from CWs such as filtration, sedimentation, adsorption, volatilization, phyto-accumulation, and microbial activity. In the past, CWs have played efficient role in the removal of toxic metals, hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and dyes from wastewater. However, the efficiency mainly depends on initial concentrations of contaminants, plant types, plant microbes’ interactions, climatic condition and flow rate of wastewater etc. The overall conclusion of this book chapter will contribute to the development of phyto-technology for industrial wastewater and other associated industrial problems.


Constructed wetlands Phyto-technology Wastewaters Contaminants Toxicity 



The authors of this chapter are tremendously grateful to the Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, University of Peshawar and National Center of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sardar Khan
    • 1
  • Javed Nawab
    • 2
    • 3
  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental and Conservation SciencesUniversity of SwatMingoraPakistan

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