Bioremediation of Melanoidins Containing Distillery Waste for Environmental Safety

  • Vineet Kumar
  • Ram Chandra


Distillery waste (DW) is a major threat to the environment for its safe disposal due to their high content of various toxic inorganic and organic compounds. The degradation and detoxification of color-contributing compounds such as caramel, melanoidins, and plant phenolics and their metabolic products are essential prior to disposal of DW into the environment. Distilleries employ different forms of primary and secondary processes for effluent treatment; however, these treatment methods are highly energy intensive and hence quite expensive. Biological methods present an incredible alternate for decolorization and detoxification of DW due to their environmentally friendly, low cost, and publicly acceptable treatment processes. A wide variety of aerobic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and cyanobacteria have the ability to decolorize melanoidins containing DW. But DW containing different types of pollutants are not easily degraded by the single-step treatment process. Up to the present, however, no suitable method for the promising treatment of huge amounts of DW has been developed. The present book chapter aims to provide a comprehensive overview of some of the promising bioremediation and phytoremediation approaches used for the management of DW. Further, the use of two-step sequential approach for the treatment of DW is highlighted. Furthermore, the challenges and future prospects of bioremediation of DW are also discussed.


Distillery sludge Heavy metals Androgenic-mutagenic compounds In situ phytoremediation Vermicomposting 



The financial support from Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India, to Professor Ram Chandra (Grant No. BT/PR13922/BCE/8/1129) and Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship (RGNF) from University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, to Mr. Vineet Kumar, Ph.D. student, is highly acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vineet Kumar
    • 1
  • Ram Chandra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM), School for Environmental Sciences (SES)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

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