Cadmium as an Environmental Pollutant: Ecotoxicological Effects, Health Hazards, and Bioremediation Approaches for Its Detoxification from Contaminated Sites

  • Sushila Saini
  • Geeta Dhania


Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that enters the environment through various natural and anthropogenic sources and is a potential threat to most organisms including human beings. Cadmium is nondegradable in nature and hence once released to the environment stays in circulation. With progressive industrialization, the amount of this polluting toxic metal is increasing at an alarming rate. Humans get exposed to cadmium by ingestion (drinking or eating) or inhalation (breathing). Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium. Bioremediation is an innovative and promising technology for the removal of heavy metals in polluted water and lands and is very attractive in comparison with physicochemical methods because of its lower cost and higher efficiency at low metal concentrations. In microbial remediation, microorganisms can be used at the site of contamination (in situ) or off the contamination site (ex situ) for remediation. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a possible solution for heavy metal pollution since it includes sustainable remediation technologies to rectify and re-establish the natural condition of soil.


Cadmium Carcinogen Renal damage Itai-itai Bioremediation Phytoremediation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushila Saini
    • 1
  • Geeta Dhania
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyJanta Vidya Mandir Ganpat Rai Rasiwasia (JVMGRR) CollegeCharkhi DadriIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ScienceMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia

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