Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Their Potential in Environmental Management: Constraints, Prospects, and Challenges

  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Roop Kishor
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava


Increasing environmental contamination with highly toxic chemicals is warning us to find sustainable technologies to protect the environment and human health, which is a key challenge of the current scenario. A variety of physicochemical technologies are currently being applied presently to decontaminate the environment to safeguard the environment and human health. However, these technologies are costly and chemical-consuming, thus causing secondary pollution and, hence, are not environmental-friendly. As an alternative approach, bioremediation technologies using microbes and plants and their enzymes are currently viewed as eco-friendly and most sustainable technologies due to their self-sustainable and low-cost nature. But sometimes bioremediation technologies are get limited by low degradability/accumulability of microbes and plants, respectively. To overcome these limitations, genetic engineering approaches are highly decisive to design the transgenic microbes and plants for the enhanced biodegradation and biodetoxification of environmental pollutants for sustainable development. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) offer great potential for environmental remediation, and hence, in this chapter, we focused on the applications of GMOs in the environmental management with risks involved, constraints, and challenges faced by researchers in the release of GMOs for field applications.


Environmental pollutants Genetically modified organisms Environmental remediation Transgene Genetic engineering 



Gaurav Saxena and Roop Kishor are thankful to the University Grants Commission (UGC) Fellowship from UGC, Government of India, New Delhi, India.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 1
  • Roop Kishor
    • 1
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
    • 2
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Microbiology (DM)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyDongguk University-SeoulGoyang-siRepublic of Korea

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