Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Ch. Usha KumariEmail author
  • Tatiparti Padma
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 898)


The energy depletion is the major drawback in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Sensor nodes use utilize tiny sized batteries, which can neither be replaced nor recharged. Hence, the energy must be optimally maintained in such battery-operated networks. One of the popular method of optimizing the energy efficiency is through clustering. In clustering methodology, all the sensor hubs are assembled into number of groups and each group is allocated with a group head called cluster head (CH). The CH consumes high energy than remaining sensor nodes (SNs) as they are responsible for data collection and data transmission. The cluster heads are usually overloaded with large number of sensing nodes and thereby leads to faster death. Thereby degrades the network execution. In this paper, we propose three different protocols—distributed energy-efficient clustering (DEEC), developed DEEC (DDEEC) and enhanced distributed energy-efficient clustering (E-DEEC). These protocols are compared with energy depletion of cluster head and lifetime. Simulations are carried by considering 500 sensor nodes and 30 cluster heads within a communication range of \( 200\times 200\) m for 10,000 iterations. It is observed that number of nodes alive are 70% more in E-DEEC than DEEC and DDEEC. The packets transmitted to the BS are 80% more in E-DEEC than DEEC and DDEEC. The E-DEEC protocol enhances the network lifetime than DECC and DDEEC.


WSN Cluster head Distributed energy-efficient clustering DDEEC E-DEEC 


  1. 1.
    Heinzelman, W.B., Chandrakasan, A.P., Balakrishnan, H.: An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 1(4), 660–670 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xiangning, F., Yulin, S.: Improvement on LEACH protocol of wireless sensor network. In: International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2007. SensorComm, pp. 260–264. IEEE (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ali, M.S., Dey, T., Biswas, R.: ALEACH: advanced LEACH routing protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In: International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2008. ICECE, pp. 909–914. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lin, H., Wang, L., Kong, R.: Energy efficient clustering protocol for large-scale sensor networks. IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7150–7160 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smaragdakis, G., Matta, I., Bestavros, A.: SEP: A Stable Election Protocol for Clustered Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Boston University Computer Science Department (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krishna, Prasad, Vaidya, Nitin H., Chatterjee, Mainak, Pradhan, Dhiraj K.: A cluster-based approach for routing in dynamic networks. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 27(2), 49–64 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumari, Ch.U., Sasi Bhushana Rao, G., Madhu, R.: Erlang capacity evaluation in GSM and CDMA cellular systemsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taruna, S., Kohli, S., Purohit, G.N.: Distance based energy efficient selection of nodes to cluster head in homogeneous wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Wirel. Mob. Netw. 4(4), 243 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kour, H., Sharma, A.K.: Hybrid energy efficient distributed protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor network. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 4(6), 1–5 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jung, S.M., Han, Y.J., Chung, T.M.: The concentric clustering scheme for efficient energy consumption in the PEGASIS. In: The 9th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, vol. 1, pp. 260–265. IEEE (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manjeshwar, A., Agrawal D.P.: TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In: null, p. 30189a. IEEE (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumari, Ch.U., Ramya Krishna, M.: High performance wireless communication channel using LEACH protocols. Pak. J. Biotechnol. 13, 52–56Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nguyen, L.T., Defago, X., Beuran, R., Shinoda, Y.: An energy efficient routing scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems 2008 (ISWCS’08), pp. 568–572. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Younis, O., Fahmy, S.: HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 3(4), 366–379 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heinzelman, W.R., Chandrakasan, A., Balakrishnan, H.: Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, p. 10. IEEE (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saini, P., Sharma, A.K.: E-DEEC-enhanced distributed energy efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous WSN. In: 2010 1st International Conference on Parallel Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC), pp. 205–210. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GRIETHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations