Advertisement

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution Generated from Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants: Formation Mechanism, Characterization, and Profiling

  • Abhrajyoti Tarafdar
  • Alok SinhaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)

Abstract

Coal can turn out to be more vital as an energy source in the present century, and coal includes substantial amounts of organic and inorganic matter. At the point when coal burns, chemical and physical transformations take place, and numerous harmful mixes are shaped and excreted. The combustion of pulverized coal to produce electrical energy in thermal power plants results in large quantities of coal ash with varying properties. Coal ashes (Bottom ash and Fly ash) are post-combustion particulate residue. It contains various inorganic and organic compounds and some of which have already been identified as pollutants like mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Environmental contamination by PAHs has become one of the major concern across the globe. Huge amount of coal ash is being dumped at deposition sites nearby the power plant, which can contaminate the soil by its comparatively high PAH contains. PAHs contain reactive metabolites like epoxides and dihydrodiols which have the potential to bind with proteins and DNA, resulting in tumors and cancer via biochemical disruption and cell damage. The organic structure of coal generally composed of two complementary parts. The major component consists of ether or thioether linked insoluble and macromolecular networks of fused aromatic and hydroaromatic moiety. The recessive component is soluble in organic solvents. This molecular state involves aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAH, hydroxylated PAH, and heterocyclic compounds. Incomplete coal combustion is regarded as an important factor leading to the formation of PAHs. It is recommended that the development mechanisms of PAHs will be an undeniably imperative point for specialists to discover techniques for controlling emanations amid coal ignition. In the current chapter, formation mechanism of coal and hydrocarbons, uses of coal, generation of PAHs during coal combustion, and harmful effects of PAHs to environment and human are discussed. Towards the end, recent findings on the characterization and PAHs profiling in coal ash have been described.

Keywords

PAHs Coal Thermal power plants Coal ash Coal pollution 

Abbreviation

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

pPAHs

Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

NPAHs

Nitrated derivatives of PAHs

CPAH

Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Flu

Fluorene

Phen

Phenanthrene

Anth

Anthracene

Flan

Fluoranthen

Pyr

Pyrene

BaA

Benz[a]anthracene

Chry

Chrysene

BbF

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BkF

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

BaP

Benzo[a]pyrene

DBA

Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene

IP

Indeno(1,2,3-Cd) pyrene

BgP

Benzo(g,h,i)perylene

CFPPs

Coal-fired power plants

FBC

Fluidized bed combustor

References

  1. Abdel-Shafy HI, Mansour MSM (2016) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egypt J Pet 25(1):107–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo S EG, Antonieta MR, Luis BG (1996) The PMO method for analysis of structural features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons relevant to asphaltenes. Fuel 75(9):1139–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arditsoglou A, Petaloti C, Terzi E, Sofoniou M, Samara C (2004) Size distribution of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ashes generated in Greek lignite-fired power plants. Sci Total Environ 323(1–3):153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baek SO, Field RA, Goldstone ME, Kirk PW, Lester JN, Perry R (1991) A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behavior. Water Air Soil Pollut 60(3–4):279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barst BD, Ahad JME, Rose NL, Jautzy JJ, Drevnick PE, Gammon PR, Sanei H, Savard MM (2017) Lake-sediment record of PAH, mercury, and fly-ash particle deposition near coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada. Environ Pollut 231:644–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Y, Sheng G, Bi X, Feng Y, Mai B, Fu J (2005) Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China. Environ Sci Technol 39(6):1861–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi H, Spengler J (2014) Source attribution of personal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture using concurrent personal, indoor, and outdoor measurements. Environ Int 63:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Godschalk RWL, Maas LM, Van Zandwijk N, Van ’T Veer LJ, Breedijk A, Borm PJA, Verhaert J, Kleinjans JCS, Van Schooten FJ (1998) Differences in aromatic-DNA adduct levels between alveolar macrophages and subpopulations of white blood cells from smokers. Carcinogenesis 19(5):819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gurjeet P, Kothiyal NC, Kumar V (2014) Bioremediation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil using Sphingobium indicum, Sphingobium japonicum and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacterial strains under aerobic conditions. J Environ Res Dev 8(3):395–405Google Scholar
  10. IARC (2010) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Humans 92:1–868Google Scholar
  11. IPCS (2001) Environmental health criteria for arsenic and arsenic compounds. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  12. Juhasz AL, Naidu R (2000) Bioremediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review of the microbial degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 45(1–2):57–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim K-H, Jahan SA, Kabir E, Brown RJC (2013) A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environ Int 60:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Klopman G, Tu M, Fan BT (1999) META 4. Prediction of the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Theor Chem Acc Theory Comput Model (Theor Chim Acta) 102(1–6):33–38Google Scholar
  15. Knutzen J (1995) Effects on marine organisms from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other constituents of waste water from aluminium smelters with examples from Norway. Sci Total Environ 163(1–3):107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kong S, Shi J, Lu B, Qiu W, Zhang B, Peng Y, Zhang B, Bai Z (2011) Characterization of PAHs within PM10 fraction for ashes from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant stacks in Liaoning Province, China. Atmos Environ 45(23):3777–3785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kristensen P, Eilertsen E, Einarsdottir E, Haugen A, Skaug V, Ovreba S (1995) Fertility in mice after prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and inorganic lead. Environ Health Perspect 103(6):588–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laflamme RE, Hites RA (1978) The global distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42(3):289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Larsen JC (2013) Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). Evaluation of health hazards and estimation of a quality criterion in soilGoogle Scholar
  20. Li C-T, Lee W-J, Mi H-H, Su C-C (1995) PAH emission from the incineration of waste oily sludge and PE plastic mixtures. Sci Total Environ 170(3):171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li H, Liu G, Cao Y (2014a) Content and distribution of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash from a coal-fired CHP plant. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14(4):1179–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Z, Ma Z, van der Kuijp TJ, Yuan Z, Huang L (2014b) A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 468–469:843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li Z, Chen L, Liu S, Ma H, Wang L, An C, Zhang R (2016) Characterization of PAHs and PCBs in fly ashes of eighteen coal-fired power plants. Aerosol Air Qual Res 16(12):3175–3186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li X, Li J, Wu D, Lu S, Zhou C, Qi Z, Li M, Yan J (2018) Removal effect of the low-low temperature electrostatic precipitator on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 211:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu K, Xie WEI, Riley JT, Zhao Z-B, Pan W-P, Riley JT (2000) Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash from fluidized bed combustion systems. Environ Sci Technol 34(11):2273–2279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martorell I, Perello G, Marti-Cid R, Castell V, Llobet JM, Domingo JL (2010) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in foods and estimated PAH intake by the population of Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend. Environ Int 36(5):424–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Masala S, Bergvall C, Westerholm R (2012) Determination of benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzopyrenes in a Chinese coal fly ash certified reference material. Sci Total Environ 432:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mastral AM, Callen M, Mayoral C, Galban J (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from fluidized-bed combustion of coal. Fuel 74(12):1762–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mastral AM, Callén M, Murillo R (1996) Assessment of PAH emissions as a function of coal combustion variables. Fuel 75(13):1533–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mastral AM, Mastral AM, Callén MS, Callén MS (2000) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from energy generation. Environ Sci Technol 34(15):3051–3057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Menzie CA, Potocki BB, Santodonato J (1992) Ambient concentrations and exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 26(7):1278–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller EC, Miller JA (1981) Searches for ultimate chemical carcinogens and their reactions with cellular macromolecules. Cancer 47(10):2327–2345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Muñoz B, Albores A (2010 Aug) DNA damage caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons : mechanisms and markers. Intech Online, pp 124–145Google Scholar
  34. Perera F, Tang D, Whyatt R, Lederman SA (2005 Mar) DNA damage from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured by benzo [a] pyrene-DNA adducts in mothers and newborns from Northern Manhattan, The World Trade Center Area, Poland and China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14Google Scholar
  35. Pergal MM, Tešić ŽL, Popović AR (2013) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Temperature driven formation and behavior during coal combustion in a coal-fired power plant. Energy Fuels 27(10):6273–6278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Revuelta CC, de la Fuente Santiago E, Vázquez JAR (1999) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from coal-fired power plants: the influence of operation parameters. Environ Technol 20(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ruwei W, Jiamei Z, Jingjing L, Liu G (2013) Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-fired power plant bottom ash and fly ash from Huainan, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 65(2):193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sahu SK, Bhangare RC, Ajmal PY, Sharma S, Pandit GG, Puranik VD (2009) Characterization and quantification of persistent organic pollutants in fly ash from coal fueled thermal power stations in India. Microchem J 92(1):92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. SCF (2002) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons—occurrence in foods, dietary exposure and health effects. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  40. Siddens LK, Larkin A, Krueger SK, Bradfield CA, Waters KM, Tilton SC, Pereira CB, Löhr CV, Volker AM, Phillips DH, Williams DE, Baird WM (2012 Nov) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 76:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stout SA, Emsbo-Mattingly SD (2008) Concentration and character of PAHs and other hydrocarbons in coals of varying rank—implications for environmental studies of soils and sediments containing particulate coal. Org Geochem 39(7):801–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tarafdar A, Sinha A (2017) Estimation of decrease in cancer risk by biodegradation of PAHs content from an urban traffic soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(11):10373–10380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. USEPA (2008) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Krevelen DW (1993) Coal. 3rd Edition, Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  45. Verma SK, Masto RE, Gautam S, Choudhury DP, Ram LC, Maiti SK, Maity S (2015) Investigations on PAHs and trace elements in coal and its combustion residues from a power plant. Fuel 162:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang R, Yousaf B, Sun R, Zhang H, Zhang J, Liu G (2016) Emission characterization and δ13C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants. J Hazard Mater 318:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang R, Liu G, Sun R, Yousaf B, Wang J, Liu R, Zhang H (2018) Emission characteristics for gaseous- and size-segregated particulate PAHs in coal combustion flue gas from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Environ Pollut 238:581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wheatley AD, Sadhra S (2004) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solid residues from waste incineration. Chemosphere 55(5):743–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Williams PT, Taylor DT (1993) Aromatization of tyre pyrolysis oil to yield polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Fuel 72(11):1469–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ye J-S, Yin H, Qiang J, Peng H, Qin H-M, Zhang N, He B-Y (2011) Biodegradation of anthracene by Aspergillus fumigatus. J Hazard Mater 185(1):174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yuan S, Wei S, Chang B (2000) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a mixed culture. Chemosphere 41(9):1463–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zou D, Liu K, Pan WP, Riley JT, Xu Y (2003) Rapid analysis of PAHs in fly ash using thermal desorption and fast GC-TOF-MS. J Chromatogr Sci 41(5):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Environmental Science and Ecological EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (ISM)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations