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Effective Utilization of High-Grade Energy Through Thermochemical Conversion of Different Wastes

  • A. Santhoshkumar
  • R. Muthu Dinesh Kumar
  • D. Babu
  • Vinoth Thangarasu
  • R. AnandEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)

Abstract

Waste disposal is a major problem in most of the countries. Thus, waste to energy conversion will fulfill the future energy demand as well as resolve the pollution issues. This work mainly involved in the extensive study on pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and hazardous e-waste into useful energy and its impact on the environment. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) technique has attracted the research society because of its energy efficient process and more viable route for converting the waste into potential products. Similarly, this chapter provides the assessment of biomass and e-waste volarization route to produce syngas using different gasification strategies. In addition, this study focused on the pyrolysis and gasification parameters like temperature, equivalence ratio, and particle size, which influence the product yield and emission formation. In general, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and e-waste produce the volatile products, and it leaves the solid residue like char and ash. As an implementation, this study explained the conversion of waste residue from pyrolysis and gasification into useful products like activated carbon, silicon carbide, and zeolite, which can be used as the catalyst in microwave process and some other applications. At the end, the study covers the utilization of pyrolysis fuel and syngas in compression ignition engines with advanced technologies like CRDI and dual fuel strategies. CRDI and dual fuel mode combustion are the appropriate methods to reduce the engine emissions and enhance the engine efficiency.

Keywords

Biomass E-waste Microwave-assisted pyrolysis Gasification Syngas Engine 

Nomenclature

ABS

Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

BFRs

Brominated flame retardants

CAG

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

COHb

Carboxyhemoglobin

CPV

Concentrator photovoltaics

CRDI

Common rail direct injection

CRTs

Cathode ray tube

CSP

Concentrated solar power

DME

Direct methyl ether

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EDX

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis

ER

Equivalence ratio

FPSPS

Free-pressureless spark sintering technique

FTIR

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

GC

Gas chromatography

HCBs

Hexa-chlorobenzenes

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

HIPS

High impact polystyrene

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

MAOS

Microwave-assisted organic synthesis

MAP

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis

MB

Methylene blue

MSW

Municipal solid waste

MWS

Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars

NMFs

Nonmetallic fractions

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

OECD

Organisation for economic cooperation and development

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PBDD/Fs

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

PCDD/Fs

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

POPs

Persistent organic pollutants

PP

Polypropylene

PS

Polystyrene

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

SiC

Silicon carbide

TBBPA

Tetrabromobisphenol

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

WCO

Waste cooking oil

WEEE

Waste electrical and electronic equipment

WPCBs or WCB

Waste printed circuit boards

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, and the Director, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India for extending the facilities to carry out the research work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Santhoshkumar
    • 1
  • R. Muthu Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • D. Babu
    • 1
  • Vinoth Thangarasu
    • 1
  • R. Anand
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia

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