Digital Radiography: An Overview

  • Euclid Seeram


This chapter provides a broad overview of the elements of digital radiography (DR). First a definition of digital radiography is presented followed by a brief review of the essential underlying principles of film-screen radiography (F-SR) including its limitations. Secondly, the major components of digital radiography imaging systems are briefly outlined. The third topic covered a comprehensive explanation of digital imaging modalities such as computed radiography (CR), flat-panel digital radiography (FPDR), digital fluoroscopy, and digital mammography. Furthermore, the elements of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems and quality control are introduced. Finally, the chapter concludes with an introduction to topics such as enterprise imaging, cloud computing, Big Data, machine learning, and deep learning as well as artificial intelligence that are considered the next era of imaging informatics.


  1. 1.
    Mendelson DS, Rubin DL. Imaging informatics: essential tools for the delivery of imaging services. Acad Radiol. 2013;20:1195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ABII. About imaging informatics. 2016. Accessed Oct 2017.
  3. 3.
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No 116. An exposure indicator for digital radiography. College Park, MD: American Association of Physicists in Medicine; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gonzalez RC, Woods RE. Digital image processing. 4th ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson; 2018.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Seeram E. Digital radiography-an introduction. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning; 2011.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bushong S. Radiologic science for technologists. 11th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seeram E, Brennan P. Radiation protection in diagnostic imaging. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2017.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seeram E. Computed tomography: physical principles, clinical applications, and quality control. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bushberg JT, Seibert JA, Leidholdt EM Jr, Boone JM. The essential physics of medical imaging. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahesh M. Digital mammography: an overview. Radiographics. 2004;24:1747–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pisano ED, Yafee MJ. Digital mammography. Radiology. 2005;234:353–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Samei E, Seibert JA, Andriole K, Badano A, Crawford J, Reiner B, Flynn MJ, Chang P. General guidelines for purchasing and acceptance testing of PACS equipment. Radiographics. 2004;24:313–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    SIIM. What is imaging informatics? 2017. Accessed Oct 2017.
  14. 14.
    Roth C, Lannum L, Persons K. A foundation for enterprise imaging: HIMSS-SIIM collaborative white paper. J Digit Imaging. 2016;29:530–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mell P, Grence T. The NIST definition of cloud computing, Special Publication. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology; 2011. p. 800–145.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kansagra AP, Yu J-PJ, Chatterjee AR, Lenchik L, Chow DS, Prater AB, et al. Big data and the future of radiology informatics. Acad Radiol. 2016;23:30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Erickson BJ, Korfiatis P, Akkus Z, Kline TL. Machine learning. Radiographics. 2017;37:505–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang F, Jiang Y, Zhi H, Dong Y, Li H, Ma S, et al. Artificial intelligence in healthcare: past, present and future. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2017;2(4):230–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Euclid Seeram
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Medical Radiation Sciences University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Adjunct Associate Professor, Medical Imaging and Radiation SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  4. 4.Adjunct Professor, Faculty of ScienceCharles Sturt UniversityWagga WaggaAustralia
  5. 5.Adjunct Associate Professor, Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of HealthUniversity of CanberraBruceAustralia

Personalised recommendations