Occurrence and Health Impacts of Emerging Contaminants in Municipal Wastewater Reuse

  • Wei ChenEmail author
  • Shu-Yuan Pan
  • Zihao Wang
  • Xiaoping Zhang


Municipal wastewater reuse offers the potential to significantly increase the total available water resources. Recently, the occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), in water resources is of continued concern for the public health and safety. However, the existing conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were not originally conceived to eliminate these unidentified contaminants, which have not been monitored routinely because of the absence of stringent-specific regulation. This chapter focuses on the occurrence of these ECs and feasible opportunities for guidelines in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. An environmental risk assessment posed by a common means of the risk quotient shows that 27 pharmaceuticals pose high or medium risk. The concept of source control and source separation could reduce the manufacture and produce a wastewater with an optimal composition for further centralized treatment. Additional and integrated technologies for synergic treatment units are found necessary to provide high-quality recycled water and sustainable water resources.


  1. Arvaniti OS, Stasinakis AS (2015) Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ 524:81–92. Google Scholar
  2. Arvaniti OS, Ventouri EI, Stasinakis AS, Thomaidis NS (2012) Occurrence of different classes of perfluorinated compounds in Greek wastewater treatment plants and determination of their solid-water distribution coefficients. J Hazard Mater 239:24–31. Google Scholar
  3. Becker AM, Gerstmann S, Frank H (2008) Perfluorooctane surfactants in waste waters, the major source of river pollution. Chemosphere 72(1):115–121. Google Scholar
  4. Blaine AC, Rich CD, Sedlacko EM, Hyland KC, Stushnoff C, Dickenson ER, Higgins CP (2014) Perfluoroalkyl acid uptake in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) irrigated with reclaimed water. Environ Sci Technol 48(24):14361–14368. Google Scholar
  5. Bossi R, Strand J, Sortkjaer O, Larsen MM (2008) Perfluoroalkyl compounds in Danish wastewater treatment plants and aquatic environments. Environ Int 34(4):443–450Google Scholar
  6. Caldwell DJ, Mastrocco F, Anderson PD, Lange R, Sumpter JP (2012) Predicted-no-effect concentrations for the steroid estrogens estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(6):1396–1406Google Scholar
  7. Campo J, Masia A, Pico Y, Farre M, Barcelo D (2014) Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants. Sci Total Environ 472:912–922. Google Scholar
  8. Carballa M, Omil F, Lema JM, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C, Rodriguez I, Gomez M, Ternes T (2004) Behavior of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and hormones in a sewage treatment plant. Water Res 38(12):2918–2926. Google Scholar
  9. Carter KE, Farrell J (2010) Removal of perfluorooctane and perfluorobutane sulfonate from water via carbon adsorption and ion exchange. Sep Sci Technol 45(6):762–767Google Scholar
  10. Chen X, Xia X, Wang X, Qiao J, Chen H (2011) A comparative study on sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by chars, ash and carbon nanotubes. Chemosphere 83(10):1313–1319. Google Scholar
  11. Chen H, Wang X, Zhang C, Sun R, Han J, Han G, Yang W, He X (2017a) Occurrence and inputs of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from rivers and drain outlets to the Bohai Sea China. Environ Pollut 221:234–243. Google Scholar
  12. Chen W, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Mamadiev M (2017b) Facile and efficient synthesis of polyacrylonitrile-based functional fibers and its sorption properties of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate. J Mol Liq 241:1013–1022. Google Scholar
  13. Cheng J, Vecitis CD, Park H, Mader BT, Hoffmann MR (2008) Sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in landfill groundwater: environmental matrix effects. Environ Sci Technol 42(21):8057–8063Google Scholar
  14. Chu L, Wang J, Liu Y (2015) Degradation of sulfamethazine in sewage sludge mixture by gamma irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 108:102–105Google Scholar
  15. Clara M, Strenn B, Gans O, Martinez E, Kreuzinger N, Kroiss H (2005) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 39(19):4797–4807. Google Scholar
  16. Corsolini S (2009) Industrial contaminants in Antarctic biota. J Chromatogr A 1216(3):598–612. Google Scholar
  17. De Sanctis M, Del Moro G, Chimienti S, Ritelli P, Levantesi C, Di Iaconi C (2017) Removal of pollutants and pathogens by a simplified treatment scheme for municipal wastewater reuse in agriculture. Sci Total Environ 580:17–25. Google Scholar
  18. Deng S, Yu Q, Huang J, Yu G (2010) Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from wastewater by anion exchange resins: effects of resin properties and solution chemistry. Water Res 44(18):5188–5195Google Scholar
  19. Deng S, Zheng YQ, Xu FJ, Wang B, Huang J, Yu G (2012) Highly efficient sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate on a quaternized cotton prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization. Chem Eng J 193-194:154–160. Google Scholar
  20. Deng S, Niu L, Bei Y, Wang B, Huang J, Yu G (2013) Adsorption of perfluorinated compounds on aminated rice husk prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization. Chemosphere 91(2):124–130. Google Scholar
  21. D’Hollander W, de Voogt P, De Coen W, Bervoets L (2010) Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 208:179–215. Google Scholar
  22. Dirany A, Aaron SE, Oturan N, Sires I, Oturan MA, Aaron J (2010) Study of the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and its degradation products in water by a bioluminescence method during application of the electro-Fenton treatment. Anal Bioanal Chem 400(2):353–360Google Scholar
  23. Feng X, Ding S, Tu J, Wu F, Deng N (2005) Degradation of estrone in aqueous solution by photo-fenton system. Sci Total Environ 345(1):229–237Google Scholar
  24. Ferrari B, Mons R, Vollat B, Fraysse B, Paxēaus N, Giudice RL, Pollio A, Garric J (2004) Environmental risk assessment of six human pharmaceuticals: are the current environmental risk assessment procedures sufficient for the protection of the aquatic environment? Environ Toxicol Chem 23(5):1344–1354Google Scholar
  25. Fujii S, Tanaka S, Hong Lien NP, Qiu Y, Polprasert C (2007) New POPs in the water environment: distribution, bioaccumulation and treatment of perfluorinated compounds – a review paper. J Water Supply Res Technol AQUA 56(5):313. Google Scholar
  26. Garoma T, Umamaheshwar SK, Mumper A (2010) Removal of sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfathiazole from aqueous solution by ozonation. Chemosphere 79(8):814–820Google Scholar
  27. Ghosh GC, Okuda T, Yamashita N, Tanaka H (2009) Occurrence and elimination of antibiotics at four sewage treatment plants in Japan and their effects on bacterial ammonia oxidation. Water Sci Technol 59(4):779–786. Google Scholar
  28. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2001) Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife. Environ Sci Technol 35(7):1339–1342. Google Scholar
  29. Gobel A, Thomsen A, Mcardell CS, Joss A, Giger W (2005) Occurrence and sorption behavior of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in activated sludge treatment. Environ Sci Technol 39(11):3981–3989Google Scholar
  30. Gomez MJ, Bueno MJM, Lacorte S, Fernandez-Alba AR, Aguera A (2007) Pilot survey monitoring pharmaceuticals and related compounds in a sewage treatment plant located on the Mediterranean coast. Chemosphere 66(6):993–1002. Google Scholar
  31. Gulkowska A, Leung HW, So MK, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Yeunq LWY, Richardson BJ, Lei AP, Giesy JP, Lam PKS (2008) Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China. Water Res 42(1–2):395–403. Google Scholar
  32. Guo R, Sim WJ, Lee ES, Lee JH, Oh JE (2010) Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 44(11):3476–3486. Google Scholar
  33. Hallingsorensen B (2000) Algal toxicity of antibacterial agents used in intensive farming. Chemosphere 40(7):731–739Google Scholar
  34. Holdgate MW (1987) Our common future: the report of the world commission on environment and development. Oxford University Press. Environ Conserv 14(03):282–282Google Scholar
  35. Hori H, Hayakawa E, Koike K, Einaga H, Ibusuki T (2004) Decomposition of nonafluoropentanoic acid by heteropolyacid photocatalyst H3PW12O40 in aqueous solution. J Mol Catal A Chem 211(1–2):35–41. Google Scholar
  36. Hori H, Yamamoto A, Hayakawa E, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Kutsuna S (2005) Efficient decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorocarboxylic acids by use of persulfate as a photochemical oxidant. Environ Sci Technol 39(7):2383–2388. Google Scholar
  37. Hori H, Nagaoka Y, Yamamoto A, Sano T, Yamashita N, Taniyasu S, Kutsuna S, Osaka I, Arakawa R (2006) Efficient decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals using zerovalent iron in subcritical water. Environ Sci Technol 40(3):1049–1054. Google Scholar
  38. Huset CA, Chiaia AC, Barofsky DF, Jonkers N, Kohler HPE, Ort C, Giger W, Field JA (2008) Occurrence and mass flows of fluorochemicals in the Glatt Valley watershed, Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 42(17):6369–6377. Google Scholar
  39. Jones OAH, Voulvoulis N, Lester JN (2002) Aquatic environmental assessment of the top 25 English prescription pharmaceuticals. Water Res 36(20):5013–5022Google Scholar
  40. Jung C, Son A, Her N, Zoh K, Cho J, Yoon Y (2015) Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in water using carbon nanotubes: a review. J Ind Eng Chem 27:1–11Google Scholar
  41. Karthikeyan KG, Meyer MT (2006) Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA. Sci Total Environ 361(1–3):196–207. Google Scholar
  42. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2009) The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters. Water Res 43(2):363–380. Google Scholar
  43. Kim SD, Cho J, Kim IS, Vanderford BJ, Snyder SA (2007) Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in South Korean surface, drinking, and waste waters. Water Res 41(5):1013–1021Google Scholar
  44. Kim I, Yamashita N, Tanaka H (2009) Performance of UV and UV/H2O2 processes for the removal of pharmaceuticals detected in secondary effluent of a sewage treatment plant in Japan. J Hazard Mater 166(2):1134–1140Google Scholar
  45. Krippner J, Falk S, Brunn H, Georgii S, Schubert S, Stahl T (2015) Accumulation potentials of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays). J Agric Food Chem 63(14):3646–3653. Google Scholar
  46. Kuang J, Huang J, Wang B, Cao Q, Deng S, Yu G (2013) Ozonation of trimethoprim in aqueous solution: Identification of reaction products and their toxicity. Water Res 47(8):2863–2872Google Scholar
  47. Kunacheva C, Tanaka S, Fujii S, Boontanon SK, Musirat C, Wongwattana T, Shivakoti BR (2011) Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand. Chemosphere 83(6):737–744. Google Scholar
  48. Kyzas GZ, Koltsakidou A, Nanaki SG, Bikiaris DN, Lambropoulou DA (2015) Removal of beta-blockers from aqueous media by adsorption onto graphene oxide. Sci Total Environ 537:411–420Google Scholar
  49. Lammerding AM, Fazil A (2000) Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment. Int J Food Microbiol 58(3):147–157Google Scholar
  50. Lee Y, Lee S, Lee D, Kim Y (2008) Risk assessment of human antibiotics in Korean aquatic environment. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 26(2):216–221Google Scholar
  51. Li W, Shi Y, Gao L, Liu J, Cai Y (2015) Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in an advanced wastewater treatment plant. J Hazard Mater 300:29–38Google Scholar
  52. Liang X, Gondal MA, Chang X, Yamani ZH, Li N, Lu H, Ji G (2011) Facile preparation of magnetic separable powdered-activated-carbon/Ni adsorbent and its application in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46(13):1482–1490Google Scholar
  53. Liebig M, Moltmann J, Knacker T (2005) Evaluation of measured and predicted environmental concentrations of selected human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (10 pp). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13(2):110–119. Google Scholar
  54. Lin Y, Peng Z, Zhang X (2009) Ozonation of estrone, estradiol, diethylstilbestrol in waters. Desalination 249(1):235–240Google Scholar
  55. Lin AYC, Panchangam SC, Ciou PS (2010) High levels of perfluorochemicals in Taiwan’s wastewater treatment plants and downstream rivers pose great risk to local aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere 80(10):1167–1174. Google Scholar
  56. Lindqvist N, Tuhkanen T, Kronberg L (2005) Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals in raw and treated sewages and in receiving waters. Water Res 39(11):2219–2228. Google Scholar
  57. Liu F, Zhao J, Wang S, Du P, Xing B (2014) Effects of solution chemistry on adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by graphenes and carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 48(22):13197–13206Google Scholar
  58. Loganathan BG, Sajwan KS, Sinclair E, Kumar KS, Kannan K (2007) Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorocarboxylates in two wastewater treatment facilities in Kentucky and Georgia. Water Res 41(20):4611–4620. Google Scholar
  59. Lora EES, Arrieta FP, Carpio RC, Nogueira LAH (2000) Clean production: efficiency and environment. Int. Sugar J. 102(1219):343–351Google Scholar
  60. Ma Y, Wang L, Liu L, Zhang X (2015) Biodegradation of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical solid waste by a novel Citrobacter amalonaticus strain. Environ Prog 34(1):99–104Google Scholar
  61. Mailler R, Gasperi J, Coquet Y, Deshayes S, Zedek S, Crenolive C, Cartiser N, Eudes V, Bressy A, Caupos E (2015) Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res 72:315–330Google Scholar
  62. Meinel F, Ruhl AS, Sperlich A, Zietzschmann F, Jekel M (2014) Pilot-scale investigation of micropollutant removal with granular and powdered activated carbon. Water Air Soil Pollut 226(1):2260Google Scholar
  63. Murakami M, Shinohara H, Takada H (2009) Evaluation of wastewater and street runoff as sources of perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs). Chemosphere 74(4):487–493. Google Scholar
  64. Ochoaherrera V, Sierraalvarez R (2008) Removal of perfluorinated surfactants by sorption onto granular activated carbon, zeolite and sludge. Chemosphere 72(10):1588–1593Google Scholar
  65. Ogoshi M, Suzuki Y, Asano T (2001) Water reuse in Japan. Water Sci Technol 43(10):17–23Google Scholar
  66. Pan YY, Shi YL, Wang JM, Cai YQ (2011) Evaluation of perfluorinated compounds in seven wastewater treatment plants in Beijing urban areas. Sci China Chem 54(3):552–558. Google Scholar
  67. Peng XZ, Wang ZD, Kuang WX, Tan JH, Li K (2006) A preliminary study on the occurrence and behavior of sulfonamides, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol antimicrobials in wastewaters of two sewage treatment plants in Guangzhou, China. Sci Total Environ 371(1–3):314–322. Google Scholar
  68. Punyapalakul P, Suksomboon K, Prarat P, Khaodhiar S (2012) Effects of surface functional groups and porous structures on adsorption and recovery of perfluorinated compounds by inorganic porous silicas. Sep Sci Technol 48(5):775–788Google Scholar
  69. Radjenovic J, Petrovic M, Barcelo D (2009) Fate and distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater and sewage sludge of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) and advanced membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment. Water Res 43(3):831–841. Google Scholar
  70. Rahman MF, Peldszus S, Anderson WB (2014) Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review. Water Res 50:318–340. Google Scholar
  71. Ratola N, Cincinelli A, Alves A, Katsoyiannis A (2012) Occurrence of organic microcontaminants in the wastewater treatment process. A mini review. J Hazard Mater 239-240:1–18. Google Scholar
  72. Rattanaoudom R, Visvanathan C (2012) Removal of PFOA by hybrid membrane filtration using PAC and hydrotalcite. Desalin Water Treat 32:262–270Google Scholar
  73. Rattanaoudom R, Visvanathan C, Boontanon SK (2012) Removal of concentrated PFOS and PFOA in synthetic industrial wastewater by powder activated carbon and hydrotalcite. J Water Sustainability 2(4):245–248Google Scholar
  74. Rodriguez I, Quintana JB, Carpinteiro J, Carro AM, Lorenzo RA, Cela R (2003) Determination of acidic drugs in sewage water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. J Chromatogr A 985(1–2):265–274. Google Scholar
  75. Rosal R, Rodriguez A, Perdigon-Melon JA, Petre A, Garcia-Calvo E, Gomez MJ, Aguera A, Fernandez-Alba AR (2010) Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation. Water Res 44(2):578–588. Google Scholar
  76. Sanderson H, Johnson DJ, Wilson CJ, Brain RA, Solomon KR (2003) Probabilistic hazard assessment of environmentally occurring pharmaceuticals toxicity to fish, daphnids and algae by ECOSAR screening. Toxicol Lett 144(3):383–395Google Scholar
  77. Schultz MM, Barofsky DF, Field JA (2006) Quantitative determination of fluorinated alkyl substances by large-volume-injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry – Characterization of municipal wastewaters. Environ Sci Technol 40(1):289–295. Google Scholar
  78. Stamatis NK, Konstantinou IK (2013) Occurrence and removal of emerging pharmaceutical, personal care compounds and caffeine tracer in municipal sewage treatment plant in Western Greece. J Environ Sci Health B 48(9):800–813. Google Scholar
  79. Stuerlauridsen F, Birkved M, Hansen LP, Lutzhoft HCH, Hallingsorensen B (2000) Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic use. Chemosphere 40(7):783–793Google Scholar
  80. Stumpf M, Ternes TA, Wilken R, Rodrigues S, Baumann W (1999) Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro Brazil. Sci Total Environ 225(1):135–141Google Scholar
  81. Suarez S, Lema JM, Omil F (2010) Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions. Water Res 44(10):3214–3224Google Scholar
  82. Tauxe-Wuersch A, De Alencastro LF, Grandjean D, Tarradellas J (2005) Occurrence of several acidic drugs in sewage treatment plants in Switzerland and risk assessment. Water Res 39(9):1761–1772. Google Scholar
  83. Ternes TA, Meisenheimer M, Mcdowell D, Sacher F, Brauch H, Haistgulde B, Preuss G, Wilme U, Zuleiseibert N (2002) Removal of pharmaceuticals during drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Technol 36(17):3855–3863Google Scholar
  84. Thomas PM, Foster GD (2005) Tracking acidic pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and triclosan through the wastewater treatment process. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(1):25–30. Google Scholar
  85. Thompson J, Eaglesham G, Reungoat J, Poussade Y, Bartkow M, Lawrence M, Mueller JF (2011) Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia. Chemosphere 82(1):9–17. Google Scholar
  86. Tootchi L, Seth R, Tabe S, Yang P (2013) Transformation products of pharmaceutically active compounds during drinking water ozonation. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 13(6):1576–1582Google Scholar
  87. Valipour M (2014) Future of agricultural water management in Africa. Arch Agron Soil Sci 61(7):907–927Google Scholar
  88. Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Zambello E (2012) Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review. Sci Total Environ 429:123–155. Google Scholar
  89. Wan Z, Wang J (2016) Ce-Fe-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for sulfamethazine degradation in aqueous solution. Environ Sci Pollut R 23(18):18542–18551Google Scholar
  90. Wang J, Wang S (2016) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: a review. J Environ Manag 182:620–640. Google Scholar
  91. Wang F, Liu C, Shih K (2012) Adsorption behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on boehmite. Chemosphere 89(8):1009–1014. Google Scholar
  92. Watkinson AJ, Murby EJ, Costanzo SD (2007) Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling. Water Res 41(18):4164–4176. Google Scholar
  93. Wols BA, Harmsen DJH, Beerendonk EF, Hofmancaris CHM (2015) Predicting pharmaceutical degradation by UV (MP)/H2O2 processes: a kinetic model. Chem Eng J 263:336–345Google Scholar
  94. Wu X, Conkle JL, Ernst F, Gan J (2014) Treated wastewater irrigation: uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by common vegetables under field conditions. Environ Sci Technol 48(19):11286–11293. Google Scholar
  95. Xue J, Zhang J, Xu B, Xie J, Wu W, Lu Y (2016) Endotoxins: the critical risk factor in reclaimed water via inhalation exposure. Environ Sci Technol 50(21):11957–11964. Google Scholar
  96. Yamamoto T, Noma Y, Sakai S, Shibata Y (2007) Photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate by UV irradiation in water and alkaline 2-propanol. Environ Sci Technol 41(16):5660–5665Google Scholar
  97. Yan T, Chen H, Wang X, Jiang F (2013) Adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on mesoporous carbon nitride. RSC Adv 3(44):22480. Google Scholar
  98. Yu Q, Deng SB, Yu G (2008) Selective removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous solution using chitosan-based molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents. Water Res 42(12):3089–3097. Google Scholar
  99. Yu J, Hu JY, Tanaka S, Fujii S (2009a) Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants. Water Res 43(9):2399–2408. Google Scholar
  100. Yu Q, Zhang R, Deng S, Huang J, Yu G (2009b) Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate on activated carbons and resin: Kinetic and isotherm study. Water Res 43(4):1150–1158. Google Scholar
  101. Zhang Q, Deng S, Yu G, Huang J (2011) Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous solution by crosslinked chitosan beads: sorption kinetics and uptake mechanism. Bioresour Technol 102(3):2265–2271. Google Scholar
  102. Zhao C, Zhang J, He G, Wang T, Hou D, Luan Z (2013) Perfluorooctane sulfonate removal by nanofiltration membrane the role of calcium ions. Chem Eng J 233:224–232Google Scholar
  103. Zhao C, Tang CY, Li P, Adrian P, Hu G (2016) Perfluorooctane sulfonate removal by nanofiltration membrane-the effect and interaction of magnesium ion/humic acid. J Membr Sci 503:31–41. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shu-Yuan Pan
    • 2
  • Zihao Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoping Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Environment and Energy, South China University of TechnologyGuangzhou Higher Education Mega CentreGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Energy Technologies AreaLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of TechnologyGuangzhou Higher Education Mega CentreGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations