Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Design of a Low-Profile Fractal Patch Antenna

  • Ankan BhattacharyaEmail author
  • Arnab De
  • Arindam Biswas
  • Bappadittya Roy
  • Anup K. Bhattacharjee
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 41)


In this paper, a novel approach in Microstrip Patch Antenna analysis and design has been introduced. Here, a low-profile fractal microstrip antenna has been presented. ‘Sierpinski Triangular’ fractal geometry has been applied in the designing the antenna. Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization technique has been utilized for optimizing the design parameters. Triangular slots have been etched in the ground plane, repeated in the subsequent iterative stages. An inverted triangular patch has been placed on top of almost 1.00 mm thick Roger 4350 substrate having an electrical permittivity of 3.48 and loss tangent of 0.004. The antenna resonating frequency is 3.5 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 700 MHz. The antenna finds its application in 3.5 GHz WiMAX band with a maximum gain of 3.34 dBi and return loss factor of 24 dB at the resonant frequency, which is reasonably better than conventional microstrip patches.


Compact microstrip patch antenna Fractal geometry Particle swarm optimization 



The authors express their sincere gratitude to Dr. S. K. Chowdhury, Retired Professor of ETCE Dept., Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India for his constructive comments and suggestions for this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankan Bhattacharya
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Arnab De
    • 1
  • Arindam Biswas
    • 3
  • Bappadittya Roy
    • 1
    • 4
  • Anup K. Bhattacharjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringNational Institute of Technology, DurgapurDurgapurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringMallabhum Institute of TechnologyBishnupurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringAsansol Engineering CollegeAsansolIndia
  4. 4.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringMadanapalle Institute of Technology and ScienceMadanapalleIndia

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