Technology-Enhanced Approaches to the Development of Intercultural Sensitivity in a Collaborative Language Program: A Japanese-Korean Case

  • Hye-Gyeong OheEmail author
Part of the Education Innovation Series book series (EDIN)


Accelerated globalization due to immigration as well as the development of Internet technology greatly complicates sociolinguistic issues today. This complexity is especially striking in view of refugee discussions or other issues as wearing a hijab in a public place. In the era of sometimes aggravated confusion and complexity, a liberal arts education (LAE) needs to empower and prepare individuals to grow as competent and mature world citizens who deal with complicated issues arising from diversity and change (Association of American Colleges & Universities, n.d.). In particular, with a sharp increase in the number of multicultural and multilingual environments on- and offline, the fostering of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) has become a crucial factor in foreign language education (FLE).



I am grateful to Tomomi Takabayashi and Jisoo Lim, research assistants, who helped the reflections of the ICU students. I’d also like to add my special gratitude to Mary Brooks for her proofreading as well as her very useful comments.


  1. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (2014). World-readiness standards for learning languages newly refreshed. The Language Educator. Retrieved from
  2. Association of American Colleges & Universities. (n.d.). What Is a 21st Century Liberal Education? Retrieved from
  3. Bennett, J. M., Bennett, M. J., & Allen, W. (2003). Developing intercultural competence in the language classroom. In D. L. Lange & M. P. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning (pp. 237–270). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Byram, M. (1989). Cultural studies in foreign language education. Cleveland, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  5. Byram, M. (1991). Teaching culture and language: Towards an integrated model. In D. Buttjes & M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Toward an intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 17–30). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  6. Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  7. Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Retrieved from. Retrieved from Section0/uploads/File1235272745204/InterculturalDimensionByram.pdf
  8. Byram, M., & Zarate, G. (1994). Definitions, objectives and assessment of sociocultural competence. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  9. Byram, M., & Zarate, G. (1997). Defining and assessing intercultural competence: Some principles and proposals for the European context. Language Teaching, 29, 239–243.Google Scholar
  10. Candlin, C. N. (1987). Towards task-based language learning. In C. N. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.), Language learning tasks (pp. 5–22). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International.Google Scholar
  11. Candlin, C. N. (1989). Language, culture and curriculum. In C. N. Candlin & T. McManara (Eds.), Language learning and curriculum (pp. 1–24). Sydney, Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.Google Scholar
  12. Cavanagh, S. (1997). Content analysis: Concepts, methods and applications. Nurse Researcher, 4, 5–16.Google Scholar
  13. Chambers, A. (2004). Changing concepts in culture and language learning. In M. Smith (Ed.), Readings in the teaching of culture (pp. 15–19). Dublin, Ireland: The Linguistics Institute of Ireland.Google Scholar
  14. Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Deardoff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241–266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deardorff, D. K. (2004). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States. Unpublished PhD dissertation. North California State University. Retrieved from
  17. Dooly, M. (2010). Teacher 2.0. In S. Guth & F. Helm (Eds.), Telecollaboration 2.0: Language and intercultural learning in the 21st century (pp. 277–304). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  18. Fantini, A. E. (2000). A central concern: Developing intercultural competence. Report by the Intercultural Communicative Competence Task Force, 25–42. Retrieved from
  19. Fantini, A. E., Tirmizi, A. (2006). Exploring and assessing intercultural competence. World Learning Publications. Paper 1. Retrieved from
  20. Furstenberg, G. (2010). Making culture the core of the language class: Can it be done? The Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 329–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Helm, F. (2009). Language and culture in an online context: What can learner diaries tell us about intercultural competence? Language and Intercultural Communication, 9(2), 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holliday, A. (2013). Understanding intercultural communication: The grammar of culture. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Levy, M., & Stockwell, G. (2006). CALL dimensions: Options and issues in computer assisted language learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Liddicoat, A. J., & Kohler, M. (2012). Teaching Asian languages from an intercultural perspective: Building bridges for and with students of Indonesian. In X. Song & K. Cadman (Eds.), Bridging transcultural divides: Teaching Asian languages and cultures in global higher education (pp. 73–99). Adelaide, Australia: University of Adelaide Press.Google Scholar
  28. Liddicoat, A. J., Papademetre, L., Scarino, A., & Kohler, M. (2003). Report on intercultural language learning. Australian Government: Department of Education, Science and Training. Retrieved from
  29. Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced foreign language learners. In D. Buttjes & M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures (pp. 136–158). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  30. Moller, A. J. & Nugent, K. (2014). Building intercultural competence in the language classroom. In S. Dhonau (Ed.), Unlock the gateway to communication (pp. 1–18). Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Retrieved from
  31. Murray, G. L., & Bollinger, D. J. (2001). Developing cross-cultural awareness: Learning through the experiences others. TESL Canada Journal, 19(1), 62–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nieto, S. (1999). The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning communities, Multicultural Education Series. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  33. O’Dowd, R. (2007). Evaluating the outcomes of online intercultural exchange. ELT Journal, 61(2), 144–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Dowd, R. (2015). Supporting in-service language educators in learning to telecollaborate. Language Learning & Technology, 19(1), 63–82. Retrieved from
  35. Ohe, H. G. (2016). Cultivating intercultural communicative competence in liberal arts institutions. In I. Jung, M. Nishimura, & T. Sasao (Eds.), Liberal arts education and colleges in East Asia (pp. 137–150). Singapore, Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Poplin, M. S., & Stone, S. (1992). Paradigm shifts in instructional strategies: From reductionism to holistic/constructivism. In W. Stainback & S. Stainback (Eds.), Controversial issues in special education (pp. 153–179). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  37. Scarino, A. (2010). Assessing intercultural capability in learning languages: A renewed understanding of language, culture, learning, and the nature of assessment. Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 324–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schenker, T. (2012). Intercultural competence and cultural learning through telecollaboration. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 449–470. Retrieved from
  39. Schulz, R. A. (2007). The challenge of assessing cultural understanding in the context of foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 9–26. Retrieved from
  40. Sinicrope, C., Norris, J. M., & Watanabe, Y. (2007). Understanding and assessing intercultural competence: A summary of theory, research, and practice. Second Language Studies, 26(1), 1–58. Retrieved from
  41. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development (M. Cole, Trans.). In Mind in society, (pp. 79–91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ware, P., & O’Dowd, R. (2008). Peer feedback on language form in telecollaboration. Language Learning & Technology, 12(1), 43–63. Retrieved from
  43. Wright, D. A. (2000). Culture as information and culture as affective process: A comparative study. Foreign Language Annals, 33(3), 330–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Christian UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations