Advertisement

UVR and Vitamin D Synthesis

  • Deepti Chopra
  • Dhanananajay Kumar
  • Divya Dubey
  • Jyoti Singh
  • Ajeet Kumar Srivastav
  • Kailash Chand Gupta
Chapter
  • 242 Downloads

Abstract

Vitamin D is also known as the sunshine vitamin for all the good reasons. During the skin exposure to sunlight, UVB photolyses 7-dehydrocholesterol of skin into pre-vitamin D3 which further gets isomerized into vitamin D3. Human beings typically count on sunlight exposure for their total vitamin D need. Skin pigmentation/colouration, use of proper sunscreen, photoaging of one’s skin, particular time of the day, seasonal changes/fluctuations and, lastly, latitude hugely influence synthesis of pre-vitamin D3. Around 50% of total population of the world is currently under deficiency of vitamin D according to reports. Vitamin D deficiency may be partially due to inadequate vitamin D-enriched foods and well-known misapprehension of healthy diet being adequate in vitamin D. Its deficiency is responsible for causing retardation in growth and rickets primarily in kids. Further, in adults it may cause osteoporosis, osteopenia and increased risk of fractures. The other severe consequences include cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and common cancers. Thus, for the humans, there is a constant need to emphasize on the intake of crucial amount of sunlight to fulfil their essential threshold vitamin D requirements for a better well-being.

Keywords

Vitamin D Autoimmune diseases Osteoporosis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

KC Gupta thanks Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, for awarding Dr. A.S. Paintal Distinguished Scientist Chair at CSIR-IGIB, Delhi. D Chopra thanks Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, for awarding Research Associateship at CSIR-IITR, Lucknow.

References

  1. Arya, V., Bhambri, R., Godbole, M. M., & Mithal, A. (2004). Vitamin D status and its relationship with bone mineral density in healthy Asian Indians. Osteoporosis International, 15(1), 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dowdy, J. C., Sayre, R. M., & Holick, M. F. (2010). Holick’s rule and vitamin D from sunlight. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 121(1–2), 328–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Engelsen, O. (2010). The relationship between ultraviolet radiation exposure and vitamin D status. Nutrients, 2(5), 482–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Grant, W. B., Garland, C. F., & Holick, M. F. (2005). Comparisons of estimated economic burdens due to insufficient solar ultraviolet irradiance and vitamin D and excess solar UV irradiance for the United States. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 81, 1276–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guillemant, J., Le, H. T., Maria, A., Allemandou, A., Peres, G., & Guillemant, S. (2001). Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: Effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporosis International, 12(10), 875–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Holick, M. F. (1994). Vitamin D. In M. Shils, J. A. Olson, & M. Shike (Eds.), Modern nutrition in health and disease (pp. 308–325). Malvern: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  7. Holick, M. F. (2002). Vitamin D: The underappreciated D-lightful hormone that is important for skeletal and cellular health. Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes, 9, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liu, P. T., Stenger, S., Li, H., Wenzel, L., Tan, B. H., Krutzik, S. R., Ochoa, M. T., Schauber, J., Wu, K., Meinken, C., Kamen, D. L., Wagner, M., Bals, R., Steinmeyer, A., Zügel, U., Gallo, R. L., Eisenberg, D., Hewison, M., Hollis, B. W., Adams, J. S., Bloom, B. R., & Modlin, R. L. (2006). Toll-Like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-Mediated human antimicrobial response. Science, 311, 1770–1773. Nutrients 2010, 2 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Olds, W. J., McKinley, A. R., Moore, M. R., & Kimlin, M. G. (2008). In vitro model of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) synthesis by UV radiation: Dose–response relationships. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 93(2), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pilz, S., Tomaschitz, A., Ritz, E., & Pieber, T. R. M. (2009). Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: A systematic review. Nature Reviews. Cardiology, 6, 621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ponsonby, A. L., Lucas, R. M., & van der Mei, I. A. (2005). UVR, vitamin D and three autoimmune diseases-multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 81, 1267–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shaw, N. J., & Pal, B. R. (2002). Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: Activating a new concern. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 86(3), 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Webb, A. R. (2006). Who, what, where and when—Influences on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 92(1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Webb, A. R., & Engelsen, O. (2008). Ultraviolet exposure scenarios: Risks of erythema from recommendations on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In Sunlight, vitamin D and skin Cancer (pp. 72–85). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Webb, A. R., & Engelsen, O. (2014). Ultraviolet exposure scenarios: Risks of erythema from recommendations on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 810, 406–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Yamshchikov, A. V., Desai, N. S., Blumberg, H. M., Ziegler, T. R., & Tangpricha, V. (2009). Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Endocrine Practice, 15, 438–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepti Chopra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dhanananajay Kumar
    • 3
  • Divya Dubey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jyoti Singh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ajeet Kumar Srivastav
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kailash Chand Gupta
    • 5
  1. 1.Photobiology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment GroupCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Babu Banarasi Das UniversityLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & TechnologyIIT-BHUVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.Academy of Scientific and Innovative ResearchNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative BiologyNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations