Advertisement

Food, Agriculture and Small Farmers in Asia

  • Lindsay FalveyEmail author
Chapter
  • 345 Downloads

Abstract

Food demand, an increasingly urban consumer base, food safety and risks of disease transference from domestic livestock, define much of the fundamentals for development in Asia. Food security for the populous region relies on small farmers, continuous research breakthroughs and an appreciation of the integrated nature of development, which in turn provides a broad understanding of the intent behind the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Agriculture’s impact on the natural environment in meeting food demand, sometimes misunderstood to have been avoidable, forms part of the ongoing research focus that seeks to balance human and environmental well-being. As the major source of basic food production, small farmers with diverse food outputs support their own lifestyles in rural regions, and thereby reduce the rate of urban poverty growth, while also providing marketable surpluses. This chapter argues that a holistic view of development indicates that food security continues as it has through history to be central to good governance, which ipso facto renders reliance on free trade in food to be a risk for food-importing nations. Continual reliance on research has become more critical with an increased global awareness of the link between food deficits and migration, and with the poorly appreciated decline in international research spending specific to developing nations. The lead in such research and development is shifting to China and India, yet much still focuses on large-scale production. Research which focuses on small farmers is catered for through the efficient if underfunded Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which has made substantial contributions to world stability and food through innovations across agricultural intensification, environmental sustainability, market reform, food safety and zoonotic disease mitigation. The chapter concludes that where food and nutritional security are responsibly managed, population-induced environmental degradation decreases and opportunities for other developments are created such as conservation, education, health and gender equity.

Bibliography

  1. Alston, J.M., Norton, G.W. and Pardey, P.G. Science under scarcity: Principles and practice for agricultural research evaluation and priority setting. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  2. Berti, P. R., Krasevec, J. and Fitz Gerald, S. A review of the effectiveness of agriculture interventions in improving nutrition outcomes. Public Health Nutrition 7, 2004 (5): 599–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CGIAR Our new strategy: Redefining how CGIAR does business to 2030. Montpellier, 2016.Google Scholar
  4. Cunningham, K. Rural and urban linkages: Operation Flood’s role in India’s dairy development. Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  5. de Janvry, A. Agriculture for development: new paradigm and options for success. Elmhirst lecture presented at the 27th Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, August 16–22, Beijing, 2009.Google Scholar
  6. Doherty, P. Peter Doherty on challenges and opportunities of pig production in Southeast Asia, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9upSgfeMKFY Accessed 24 June 2017.
  7. Evenson, R. E, Msangi, S., Sulser, T. and Rosegrant, M. Green Revolution counterfactuals. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association, July 23–26, Long Beach, 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Falvey, L. Small farmers secure food: survival food security, the world’s kitchen and the critical role of small farmers. Nakhorn Sri Thammarat: Thaksin University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  9. Falvey, L. Beliefs that Bias Food & Agriculture: Questions I’m Often Asked. Institute for International Development, 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Falvey, L. Integrated Development: An Historical Insight of Our Time. Asian Agri-History Journal 2016, 20:253–26.Google Scholar
  11. FAO (2017) The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Geneva: Food and Agriculture Organisation, 2017.Google Scholar
  12. Grace, D. Food safety in low and middle income countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2015, 12(9): 10490–10507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iannotti, L., Cunningham, K. and Ruel, M. Improving diet quality and micronutrient nutrition: Homestead food production in Bangladesh. Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  14. ICS A guide to SDG interactions: from science to implementation. International Council for Science, 2017. https://www.icsu.org/cms/2017/05/SDGs-Guide-to-Interactions.pdf
  15. IAEG-SDGs Revised list of global Sustainable Development Goal indicators. Report of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators, (E/CN.3/2017/2), Annex III, 2017.Google Scholar
  16. Kirk, M. and. Tuan, N.D. Land-tenure policy reforms: Decollectivization and the Doi Moi system in Vietnam. Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  17. Li, J., Xin, Y. and Yuan, L. Hybrid rice technology development: Ensuring China’s food security. Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  18. Lindner, R., McLeod, P. and Mullen, J. (2013) Returns to ACIAR’s investment in bilateral agricultural research. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.Google Scholar
  19. Lipton, M. Why poor people stay poor: Urban bias in world development. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Norman Borlaug (1970) Norman Borlaug's Acceptance Speech. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1970/borlaug-acceptance.html
  21. Pray, C. and Nagarajan, L. Pearl millet and sorghum improvement in India. Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  22. Regenerative (2014) 6 Problems with Monoculture Farming. www.regenerative.com
  23. Schwoob, M.H. Agricultural Transformation Pathways Initiative – 2016 Report. IDDRI, Rothamsted Research, 2016.Google Scholar
  24. Sen, A. Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. Shanmugasundaram, S., Keatinge, J. and d’Arros Hughes, J. The mungbean transformation: Diversifying crops, defeating malnutrition. Discussion Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  26. Short, R. “The impact of population growth on tomorrow’s world,” Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 2009, 364 (1532): 2971–2974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith, J. W. Global food and nutrition security for population stabilization: Contributions of the developing world’s livestock sector. International Livestock Research Institute, 2017.Google Scholar
  28. Spielman, D. and Pandya-Lorch, R. Fifty years of progress. In Spielman, D. J., Pandya-Lorch, R. eds, Millions Fed: Proven successes in agricultural development. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, pp. 1–18, 2009. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/130811. Accessed 24 June 2017.
  29. von Braun, J. Food security under stress from price volatility, agricultural neglect, climate change and recession. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  30. Whitehead, A. N. “Importance. Lecture One” in Modes of Thought, New York: Macmillan, 1938.Google Scholar
  31. Yosef, S. Rich food for poor people: Genetically improved tilapia in the Philippines. Discussion Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations