How to Manage Moderate Aortic Regurgitation in the Context of Combined Valvular Disease

  • Hideaki TakaiEmail author


Surgeons sometimes face difficulty when questioning how far to extend the surgical indications for valvuloplasty and valve replacement while taking the pathophysiology and surgical invasiveness into account when they consider surgical treatment for combined valvular disease (CVD). This would reflect the evidence that the mechanisms and pathophysiology of DVD are highly variable. Determination of the surgical indication is strongly affected by the cusp etiology, but the determination must be made with a comprehensive understanding of all examination results.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryThe Cardiovascular InstituteTokyoJapan

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