Crop Responses



The greenhouse gas CO2 was considered as plant nutrient when its role in photosynthesis identified. Kimball (1983) analyzed the response of 430 crop species. Strain and Sionit (1982) edited 778 references to demonstrate CO2-induced increase in growth and productivity of crop plants. The positive impact of elevated CO2 was recognized as early as 1888 in England for food crops and flowers (Lundegardh, 1920–23). Brown and Escombe (1902) reported negative effects of CO2 as downward curling of leaves and aborting of buds, which were attributed to the impurities in the CO2. Sixteen species of plants, which were grown in CO2-enriched (1500ul/l-1) greenhouses, showed a 160% increase in plant weight varying from 97% for Fuchsia to 262% for Geranium. Cummings and Jones (1909–1914) did first field experiment using CO2 produced by mixing Na2CO3 and H2SO4 and demonstrated increased yields of pods and seeds of peas and beans, larger potato tubers, heavier leaves and early fruits, and higher yield of strawberries; however, no detail is given as to how the concentration of CO2 was measured and supplied for 8 hrs per day to these crops. The CO2 produced by burning of charcoal, coal gas, per peats, and purified gas from smelter and furnaces was used for growing greenhouse vegetables in Northern Europe. Reinae (1931–1917) reported the beneficial use of CO2 fertilization in 6000 nurseries for commercial vegetable and flower growing in Germany. The old Chestnut Experimental Station in England (1926–1930) found an increase of 30% in the yield of greenhouse tomatoes due to CO2 enrichment. However, they did not recommend the CO2 enrichment technology for the commercial use. Interest has been aroused in the commercialization of greenhouse crop production in the western world during 1961 when Dutch grower Gravenzande marketed winter lettuce of greater weight and better quality. Subsequently 4000 acres of lettuce were grown in CO2-enriched environment in the Netherland in 1961. Gaastra (1959) made physiological studies on the process of photosynthesis in CO2 grown tomato and cucumber. Goldsberry and Holey (1962) reported the use of CO2 fertilization in the flowering industry by inducing higher yield, better flower texture, and shorter production cycle along with other benefits (Wittwer 1986; Uprety 2014). Many papers relating to the use of CO2 enrichment technologies appeared in International Horticultural Congress in 1962. However, no such papers were published from the USA. USA has not used CO2 enrichment in greenhouse environment till 1960. Keeling in his first observation reported an exponential rise in the atmospheric CO2 from 315 ul/l-1 in 1958 to 344 in 1976. Elevated CO2-controlled greenhouses were beneficial for many vegetables and flower crops during the months of spring. However, there is little benefit of additional CO2 in an adequately ventilated greenhouse. (*Quoted from Wittwer (1986)) (Table 5.1).


Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Greenhouse Crop Production International Horticultural Congress Reinas Escombe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Acock, B., Reddy, V. R., Whisler, F. D., Baker, D. N., Mckinion, J. M., Hodges, H. F., & Boote, K. J. (1983). The soybean crop simulator GLYCIM, responses of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Eashington, USA: Dept. of Energy & Dept of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, L., Jr. (1979). Potentials for carbon dioxide enrichment. In B. J. Barfield & J. F. Gerber (Eds.), Modification of the aerial environment of plants. St. Joseph: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.Google Scholar
  3. Beerling, D. J., Osborne, C., & Chaloner, W. (2001). Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO 2 decline in the late Palaeozoic era. Nature, 410, 352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berner, R. A., Beerling, D. J., Dudley, R., Robinson, J. M., & Wildman, R. A., Jr. (2003). Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31, 105–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackman, F. F. (1905). Optima and limiting factors. Annals of Botany, 19, 281–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, H. T., & Escombe, F. (1902). The influence of varying amounts of carbon dioxide in the air on the photosynthetic process of leaves and on the mode of growth of plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 70, 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CEI. (2018). Climate emergency institute. Climate change and food security: CO2 fertilization effect.Google Scholar
  8. Chakraborty, S., & Datta, S. (2003). How will plant pathogens adapt to host plant resistance at elevated CO2 under a changing climate? New Phytologist, 159, 733–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cure, J. D., & Acock, B. (1986). Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling: A literature survey. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 38, 127–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dippery, J., Tissue, D., Thomas, R., & Strain, B. (1995). Effects of low and elevated CO2 on C 3 and C 4 annuals. Oecologia, 101, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dukes, J. S. (2011). Responses of invasive species to a changing climate and atmosphere. In Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton (pp. 345–357). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Ehleringer, J. R., Cerling, T. E., & Helliker, B. R. (1997). C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia, 112, 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EPA. (2016). Environmental protection agency: Climate impacts on agriculture and food supply [Online]. Available: [Accessed 8 May 2018].
  14. Falkowski, P., Scholes, R., Boyle, E., Canadell, J., Canfield, D., Elser, J., Gruber, N., Hibbard, K., Högberg, P., & Linder, S. (2000). The global carbon cycle: A test of our knowledge of earth as a system. Science, 290, 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO. (2016a). Climate change and food security: Risks and responses. Available:
  16. FAO. (2016b). United Nations food and Agcriculture organization: The state of food and agriculture: Climate chnage, agriculture and food security.Google Scholar
  17. Gaastra, P. (1959). Photosynthesis of crop plants as influenced by light, carbon dioxide, temperature, and stomatal diffusion resistance. Wageningen: Veenman.Google Scholar
  18. Goldsberry, K., & Holley, W. (1962). Carbon dioxide research on roses at Colorado State University. Colo. Flower Grower Assoc. Bull, 151, 1–6.Google Scholar
  19. Hegland, S. J., Nielsen, A., Lázaro, A., Bjerknes, A. L., & Totland, Ø. (2009). How does climate warming affect plant-pollinator interactions? Ecology Letters, 12, 184–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. IPCC. (2007). IPCC fourth assessment report: Climate change 2007 [Online]. Available: [Accessed 16 Apr 2018].
  21. Kimball, B. A. (1983). Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: An assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations 1. Agronomy Journal, 75, 779–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. KLUS, D. J., KALISZ, S., CURTIS, P. S., TEERI, J. A., & TONSOR, S. J. (2001). Family-and population-level responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration: Gas exchange and the allocation of C, N, and biomass in Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). American Journal of Botany, 88, 1080–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leakey, A. D., Ainsworth, E. A., Bernacchi, C. J., Rogers, A., Long, S. P., & Ort, D. R. (2009). Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: Six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 2859–2876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matthaei, G. L. C. (1903). Effect of temperature on carbon dioxide assimilation. Annals of Botany, 16, 591–592.Google Scholar
  25. Melillo, J. M. (2014). Climate change impacts in the United States: The third national climate assessment. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Myers, S. S., Zanobetti, A., kloog, I., Huybers, P., Leakey, A. D., Bloom, A. J., Carlisle, E., Dietterich, L. H., Fitzgerald, G., & Hasegawa, T. (2014). Increasing CO 2 threatens human nutrition. Nature, 510, 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pearcy, R. W., & Björkman, O. (1983). Physiological effects. In E. R. Lemon (Ed.), CO2 and Plants (pp. 65–105). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Poorter, H. (1993). Interspecific variation in the growth response of plants to an elevated ambient CO 2 concentration. CO2 and Biosphere. Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Sage, R. F. (2004). The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 161, 341–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Strain, B. R., & Sionit, N. (1982). Direct effects of carbon dioxide on plants: A bibliography. Durham, NC: Department of Botany, Duke University.Google Scholar
  31. Uprety, D. C. (2014). Greenhouse gases and crops (pp. 1–427). New Delhi: Publishing India Group.Google Scholar
  32. Uprety, D. C., & Reddy, V. R. (2008). Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and crops (pp. 1–114). New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural research.Google Scholar
  33. Uprety, D. C., & Reddy, V. R. (2016). Crop responses to global warming (pp. 1–125). Dordrecht: Springer Science.Google Scholar
  34. Walker, B., Steffen, W., Canadell, J., & Ingram, J. (1999). The terrestrial biosphere and global change: Implications for natural and managed ecosystems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Wittwer, S. H. (1980). Carbon dioxide and climatic change: An agricultural perspective. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 36, 116–120.Google Scholar
  36. Wittwer, S. (1986). Worldwide status and history of CO2 enrichment--an overview. In H. Z. Enoch & B. A. Kimball (Eds.), Carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouse crops. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  37. Woodward, F. I. (1987). Climate and plant distribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Yasuda, Y., Kitagawa, H., & Nakagawa, T. (2000). The earliest record of major anthropogenic deforestation in the Ghab Valley, Northwest Syria: A palynological study. Quaternary International, 73, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ziska, L. H., & Goins, E. W. (2006). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and weed populations in glyphosate treated soybean. Crop Science, 46, 1354–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zvereva, E., & Kozlov, M. (2006). Consequences of simultaneous elevation of carbon dioxide and temperature for plant–herbivore interactions: A metaanalysis. Global Change Biology, 12, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plant PhysiologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Adaptive Cropping System LaboratoryUSDA, ARSBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations