A Review on Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys to Titanium Alloys

  • Surya Jain
  • Krishna Bhuva
  • Palak PatelEmail author
  • Vishvesh J. Badheka
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 757)


The joining of titanium alloy with aluminum alloy is the current area of interest owing to the increasing demand to reduce weight and simultaneously achieve high strength for the aviation, automotive, and ground transportation industries in order to reduce fuel consumption. However, the dissimilar metal joining of Al–Ti poses several challenges due to the difference in metallurgical and mechanical properties. It is difficult to achieve commercially acceptable sound joints with appropriate strength using fusion welding technique due to the problem of segregation, porosity, cracks, slag inclusion, aluminum-rich TixAly intermetallic phases, and inferior mechanical properties of the weld. To overcome all these defects of fusion welding, solid-state welding is employed, which is the coalescence of metals under the application of pressure and at a temperature lower than the melting point of the parent metals. This leads to lower heat input and the formation of less intermetallic compounds. This technique is opening doors for new research possibilities for joining dissimilar metals like titanium and aluminum. This paper focuses on presenting the progress in the field of joining Al–Ti using friction stir welding along with a detailed analysis regarding the effect of different parameters on the quality of the weld.


Friction stir welding Aluminum alloy Titanium alloy Dissimilar 



This work is supported by the Student Research Program of Office of Research & Sponsored Program, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar, India. No. ORSP/R&D/SRP/2017/PPVB.


  1. 1.
    Chiteka, K.: Friction stir welding/processing tool materials and selection. In: International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 2, issue 11. Delhi Technological University, India (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li, B., Zhang, Z., Shen, Y., Hu, W., Luo, L.: Dissimilar friction stir welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and aluminium alloy employing a modified butt joint configuration: influences of process variables on the weld interfaces and tensile properties. Mater. Des. 53, 838–848 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dressler, U., Biallas, G., Mercado, U.: Friction stir welding of titanium alloy TiAl6V4 to aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 526, 113–117 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bang, K., Lee, K., Bang, H., Bang, H.: Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welds between 6061-T6 Aluminum and Ti-6%Al-4%V alloys. Mater. Trans. 52(5), 974–978 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu, A., Song, Z., Nakata, K., Liao, J., Zhou, L.: Interface and properties of the friction stir welded joints of Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V with aluminum alloy 6061. Mater. Des. 71, 85–92 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aonuma, M., Nakata, K.: Dissimilar Metal joining of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys to titanium alloys by friction stir welding. Mater. Trans. 52(5), 948–952 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buffa, G., Lisi, M., Sciortino, E., Fratini, L.: Dissimilar titanium/aluminum friction stir welding lap joints by experiments and numerical simulation. Adv. Manuf. 4, 287 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, Y., Liu, C., Liu, G.: Study on the joining of titanium and aluminum dissimilar alloys by friction stir welding. Open Mater. Sci. J. 5, 256–261 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hua, C., Quan, N., Ming, K.: Interface characteristic of friction stir welding lap joints of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 22, 299–304 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wei, Y., Li, J., Xiong, J., Huang, F., Zhang, F., Raza, F.: Joining aluminum to titanium alloy by friction stir lap welding with cutting pin. Mater. Charact. 71, 1–5 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghogheri, M., Asgarani, M., Amini, K.: Friction stir welding of dissimilar joint of aluminum alloy 5083 and commercially pure titanium. Kovove Mater. 54, 71–75 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, Y.C., Nakata, K.: Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties in friction stir welding of aluminum and titanium dissimilar alloys. Mater. Des. 30, 465–475 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhindaw, B., De, P., Jayashree, P.: Friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 1100 and Titanium-Al alloy. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC (2016), Blacksburg, Virginia, USA (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surya Jain
    • 1
  • Krishna Bhuva
    • 1
  • Palak Patel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vishvesh J. Badheka
    • 1
  1. 1.Pandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations