Advertisement

Conclusion

Chapter
  • 499 Downloads
Part of the International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development book series (CHILD, volume 24)

Abstract

Principles of democratic education that frame this book are summarised in this conclusion. These go back to Athenian times and are extended by consideration of contemporary models of democracy in education that are capable of both generating “a good life” for persons and being “good for society”. The meaning of these values is itself a matter for democratic debate. Democracy in education is considered in relation to the interactions within ECEC settings amongst teachers and participants, in relation to the nature of ECEC provision and in relation to the policy settings that frame ECEC. Tensions that have arisen in New Zealand between aspirations for a democratic and public ECEC and oppositional influences of marketisation and privatisation are common to many countries, yet with sound analysis and concerted advocacy, these influences can be challenged and pushed back. In this conclusion, I bring together findings from the chapters to examine what conditions might be needed for integrated and democratic early childhood education provision in Aotearoa New Zealand, the progress made to date and what changes are needed for the future. This book was finalised in early 2018, only 4 months after a new left-leaning Labour-led government came into power in Aotearoa New Zealand. Its election and immediate actions during its first 100 days of office have raised hope that the decades of neoliberalism and marketisation may be ousted and replaced with a more humane and socially just approach to children, families, workers and education.

Keywords

ECEC Settings Early Childhood Education (ECE) Zealanders ECEC Services Working Capital Fund 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Apple, M. (2005). Education, markets, and an audit culture. Critical Quarterly, 47(1–2), 11–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayleys Real Estate. (2018, 26 March). Childcare investment returns $243,100 a year. Bayleys News and articles. Retrieved from https://www.bayleys.co.nz/news/commercial/childcare-investment-returns-243100-a-year
  3. Bennett, J. (2006). New policy conclusions from starting strong 11. An update on the OECD early childhood policy reviews. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 14(2), 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carr, M., Mitchell, L., & Rameka, L. (2016). Some thoughts about the value of an OECD international assessment framework for early childhood services in Aotearoa New Zealand. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 17(4), 450–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carr, W., & Hartnett, A. (1996). Education and the struggle for democracy. Buckingham, UK/Bristol: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cleveland, G., Krashinsky, M., Colley, S., & Avery-Nunez, C. (2016). City of Toronto: Licensed childcare demand and affordability study. Retrieved from https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/8d0a-Community-Services-and-Facilities-Toronto-Demand-Affordability-Study-2016.pdf
  7. Dahlberg, G., Moss, P., & Pence, A. (1999). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care. Post modern perspectives (1st ed.). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dewey, J. (1916/1944). Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press, Macmillan Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Dewey, J. (1939). Creative democracy. The task before us. Retrieved January 6, 2016 http://www.beloit.edu/~pbk/dewey.html
  10. Dewey, J. (1976). Creative democracy: The task before us. In J. Boydston (Ed.), John Dewey: The later works, 1925–1953 (Vol. 14, pp. 224–230). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press (Original work published 1939).Google Scholar
  11. Early Childhood Education Project. (1996). Future directions: Early childhood education in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Educational Institute Te Riu Roa.Google Scholar
  12. Giroux, H. (1988). Teachers as intellectuals: Towards a critical pedagogy of learning. South Hadey, MA: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
  13. Giroux, H. (1992). Border crossings. Cultural workers and the politics of education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Hipkins, C. (2018). Education portfolio workplan: Purpose, objectives and overview. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Ministry/Information-releases/R-Education-Portfolio-Work-Programme-Purpose-Objectives-and-Overview.pdf
  15. International Labour Organisation. (2017). Tripartism and social dialogue. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/workers-and-employers-organizations-tripartism-and-social-dialogue/lang%2D%2Den/index.htm
  16. Kemmis, S., & Edwards-Groves, C. (2018). Understanding education. In History, politics and practice. Singapore, Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. LabourVoices. (2018). 100 days: Here’s what we’ve done. Retrieved from http://www.labour.org.nz/100_days
  18. Marshall, T. H. (1950). Citzenship and social class and other essays. Cambridge, UK: The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. May, H. (2008). Towards the right of New Zealand children for free early childhood education. International Journal of Child care and Education Policy, 2(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. May, H. (2009). Politics in the playground. The world of early childhood education in New Zealand (2nd ed.). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  21. May, H. (2017). Documenting early childhood policy in Aotearoa New Zealand: Political stories – personal journeys. In L. Miller, C. Cameron, C. Dalli, & N. Barbour (Eds.), Sage handbook of early childhood policy (pp. 151–164). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. May, H., & Mitchell, L. (2009). Strengthening community-based early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: NZEI Te Riu Roa.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whāriki. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Education. (2017). Te Whāriki. He Whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa. Early Childhood Curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Early-Childhood/ELS-Te-Whariki-Early-Childhood-Curriculum-ENG-Web.pdf
  25. Mitchell, L. (2002). Differences between community owned and privately owned early childhood education and care centres: A review of evidence. Wellington, New Zealand: Council for Educational Research. www.nzcer.org.nz
  26. Mitchell, L. (2006). Why free early childhood education? A policy based on evidence and children’s rights. Itirearea, 1(February), 1–5.Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell, L., & Brooking, K. (2007). First NZCER national survey of early childhood education services. Retrieved from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/default.php?products_id=1858
  28. Mitchell, L., & Cubey, P. (2003). Characteristics of effective professional development linked to enhanced pedagogy and children's learning in early childhood settings. A best evidence synthesis. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  29. Mitchell, L., & Davison, C. (2010). Early childhood education as sites for children’s citizenship: Tensions, challenges and possibilities in New Zealand’s policy framing. International Journal of Equity and Innovation in Early Childhood, 8(1), 12–23.Google Scholar
  30. Mitchell, L., Meagher Lundberg, P., Mara, D., Cubey, P., & Whitford, M. (2011). Locality-based evaluation of Pathways to the Future – Nga Huarahi Arataki. Integrated report 2004, 2006 and 2009. Retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ece/locality-based-evaluation-of-pathways-to-the-future-ng-huarahi-arataki
  31. Mitchell, L., Wylie, C., & Carr, M. (2008). Outcomes of early childhood education: Literature review. Report to the Ministry of Education. Retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ece/25158/48867
  32. Moss, P. (2009). There are alternatives! Markets and democratic experimentalism in early childhood education and care (Working paper no 53). The Hague, The Netherlands: Bernard Van Leer Foundation and the Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  33. Moss, P. (2012). Need markets be the only show in town? In E. LLoyd & H. Penn (Eds.), Childcare markets. Can they deliver an equitable service? Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  34. Moss, P. (2013). Beyond the investment narrative. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 14(4), 370–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moss, P., Dahlberg, G., Grieshaber, S., Mantovani, S., May, H., Pence, A., et al. (2016). The organisation for economic cooperation and Development’s international early learning study: Opening for debate and contestation. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 17(3), 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moss, P., & Petrie, P. (2002). From children’s services to children’s spaces. London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  37. NZEI Te Riu Roa. (2017). About us. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from https://www.nzei.org.nz/NZEI/About-Us/Aboutus.aspx?About_Us=1
  38. Ober, J. (2008). Democracy and knowledge: Innovation and learning in classical Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oberhuemer, P. (2005). Conceptualising the early childhood pedagogue: Policy approaches and issues of professionalism. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 13(1), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. OECD. (2006). Starting strong 11: Early childhood education and care. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. OECD. (2017). The international early learning and child well-being study – The study. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/the-international-early-learning-and-child-well-being-study-the-study.htm
  42. Penn, H. (2012). Childcare markets. Do they work? In E. LLoyd & H. Penn (Eds.), Childcare markets. Can they deliver an equitable service? (pp. 18–42). Bristol, UK: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  43. Penn, H. (2013). The business of childcare in Europe. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22(4), 432–456.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2013.7883300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. United Nations. (1948). .Universal Declaration of Human Rights Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
  45. Urban, M., Lazzari, A., Vandenbroeck, M., Peeters, J., & Van Laere, K. (2011). Competence requirements in early childhood education and care. Research documents. Retrieved from https://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/CoReResearchDocuments2011.pdf
  46. Urban, M., Vandenbroeck, M., Lazzari, A., Van Laere, K., & Peeters, J. (2012). Competence requirements in early childhood education and care. Research documents. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED534599.pdf
  47. Urban, M., Vandenbroeck, M., Van Laere, K., Lazzari, A., & Peeters, J. (2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vandenbroeck, M., & Lazzari, A. (2014). Accessibility of early childhood education and care: The state of affairs. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22(3), 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations