Advertisement

Weaving a Curriculum

Chapter
  • 680 Downloads
Part of the International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development book series (CHILD, volume 24)

Abstract

Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996), Aotearoa New Zealand’s early childhood curriculum, developed in the early 1990s, was heralded by practitioners, trainers and experts in ECEC as a radical and exciting advancement that stood in stark contrast to traditional technicist notions of curriculum. Yet at the time, development of a national curriculum for ECEC had been regarded by those in the sector as a risky undertaking. On the one hand, there was a fear that a curriculum might constrain the freedom and play-based philosophy that characterised ECEC; on the other hand, there was a fear of a “trickle-down” effect from a prescriptive Aotearoa New Zealand school curriculum if opportunity to develop an ECEC curriculum was not taken up (Carr & May, 1993). What was unique in its development was the very close regard for and genuine consultation with more than 20 diverse sector groups over a lengthy period, the partnership with Te Kōhanga Reo National Trust (the national body representing Māori immersion language kōhanga reo) which “meant that the ideal of a document that would provide a bicultural and bilingual framework for early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa-New Zealand could become a reality” (Carr & May, 1993, p. 11) and the inclusion of all ages, birth to school starting age within an integrated curriculum framework. The aspiration statement for all children emphasised children’s competence and agency; and the curriculum principles of family and community, holistic development, relationships and empowerment offered a strong platform for collective democracy to flourish. The sociocultural theoretical frame gave weight to social and cultural contexts; its aims were framed under the theme of mana, empowerment, and elaborated within five strands: mana atua, wellbeing; mana whenua, belonging; mana tangata, contribution; mana reo, communication; and mana aoturoa, exploration. The launch of the draft curriculum framework was marked by the Combined Early Childhood Union of Aotearoa (the trade union representing teacher/educators in kindergartens and childcare centres) with a national conference held in Christchurch in 1993, where the curriculum ideals were celebrated in the writers’ keynote speeches. So highly valued by the sector are the aspirational statement for children, the principles and the strands, that, despite the swings of policy, these have remained in the updated curriculum published in 2017 (Ministry of Education, 2017), which has as the title and central metaphor, Te Whāriki.

Keywords

Early Childhood Education And Care (ECEC) Aotearoa ECEC Curriculum Mana Whenua United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Barlow, C. (1991). Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Māori culture. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barsotti, A., Dahlberg, G., Göthson, H., & Asen, G. (1992). Early childhood education in a changing world. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  3. Brostrom, S. (2013). Understanding Te Whäriki from a Danish perspective. In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whäriki. Aotearoa New Zealand's early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 239–257). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  4. Bruner, J. (1998). Each place has its own spirit and its own aspirations. RE Child, 3, 6.Google Scholar
  5. Carr, M., & May, H. (1993). Te Whāriki curriculum papers. Early childhood curriculum project. Hamilton: Waikato University.Google Scholar
  6. Cheung, M. (2008). The reductionist – Holistic worldview dilemma. MAI Review, 2008, 3, Research Note 5.Google Scholar
  7. Cullen, J. (2003). The challenge of Te Whariki: Catalyst for change? In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whariki (pp. 269–296). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER.Google Scholar
  8. Cullen, J. (2008). Outcomes of early childhood education: Do we know, can we tell, and does it matter? Jean Herbison lecture, New Zealand Association for Research in education (NZARE) Annual Conference, Palmerston North, New Zealand. http://www.nzare.org.nz/portals/306/images/Files/joy_cullen_herbison2008.pdf
  9. Dahlberg, G., Moss, P., & Pence, A. (1999). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care. Post modern perspectives (1st ed.). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  10. Durie, M. (2001, February). A framework for considering Maori educational advancement. [Opening address]. Paper presented at the Hui Taumata Matauranga, Turangi/Taupo, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  11. Education Review Office. (2013). Working with Te Whāriki Retrieved from http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-Reports/Working-with-Te-Whariki-May-2013
  12. Edwards, C., Gandini, L., & Forman, G. (Eds.). (1998). The hundred languages of children: He Reggio Emilia approach: Advanced reflections. Norwood, MA: Ablex Publishing Corp.Google Scholar
  13. Fleer, M. (2013). Theoretical plurality in curriculum design: The many voices of Te Whāriki and the Early Years Learning Framework. In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whāriki. Aotearoa New Zealand's early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 217-238). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER Press.Google Scholar
  14. Freire, P. (1970/1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  15. Langsted, O. (1994). Looking at quality from the child's perspective. In P. Moss & A. Pence (Eds.), Valuing quality in early childhood services (pp. 28–42). London: Paul Chapman.Google Scholar
  16. Lee, W., Carr, M., Soutar, B., & Mitchell, L. (2013). Understanding the Te Whāriki approach. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malaguzzi, L. (1993). For an education based on relationships. Young Children, 11(93), 9–13.Google Scholar
  18. Macfarlane, A., Glynn, T., Cavanagh, T., & Bateman, S. (2007). Creating culturally-safe schools for Maori students. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 36, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. May, H. (2005). A right as a citizen to a free [early childhood] education 1930s-2000s. Childrenz issues. Journal of the Children’s Issues Centre, 9(2), 20–24.Google Scholar
  20. McNatty, W., & Roa, T. (2002). Whanaungatanga: An illustration of the importance of cultural context. He Puna Korero: Journal of Maori and Pacific Development, 3(1), 88–96.Google Scholar
  21. Mead, H. (2003). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori Values. Wellington, New Zealand: Huia.Google Scholar
  22. Metge, J. (1996). New growth from old: The whānau in the modern world. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whāriki. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Education. (2008). Ka Hikitia – Managing for success. The Mäori education strategy 2008–2012. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Education. (2012). Me korero—Let’s talk: Ka hikitia—Accelerating success 2013–2017. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/theMinistry/PolicyAndStrategy/KaHikitia/MeKoreroLetsTalk.aspx
  26. Ministry of Education. (2017). Te Whāriki. He Whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa. In Early childhood curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Early-Childhood/ELS-Te-Whariki-Early-Childhood-Curriculum-ENG-Web.pdf Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell, L. (2003). Shifts in thinking through a teachers’ network. Early Years, 23(1), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitchell, L. (2007). A new debate about children and childhood. Could it make a difference to early childhood pedagogy and policy? Doctoral thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/347
  29. Mitchell, L. (2010). Constructions of childhood in early childhood education policy in New Zealand. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood Education, 11(4), 328–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mitchell, L., Meagher-Lundberg, P., Davison, C., Kara, H., & Kalavite, T. (2016). ECE Participation Programme Evaluation. Stage 3. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ECE/ece-participation-programme-evaluation-delivery-of-ece-participation-initiatives-stage-3
  31. Moll, L. (2000). Inspired by Vygotsky: Ethnographic experiments in education. In C. D. Lee & P. Smagorinsky (Eds.), Vygotskian perspectives on literacy research: Constructing meaning through collaborative inquiry (pp. 256–268). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Moss, P., & Petrie, P. (1997). Children’s services: Time for a new approach. London, UK: Institute of Education, University of London.Google Scholar
  33. Nuttall, J. (2003). Exploring the role of the teacher within Te Whäriki: Some possibilities and constraints. In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whäriki. Aotearoa New Zealand's early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (pp. 161–186). New Zealand Council for Educational Research: Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  34. Penetito, W. (2001). If only we knew . . . Contextualising Maori knowledge. In B. Webber & L. Mitchell (Eds.), Early childhood education for a democratic society. Conference proceedings October 2001 (pp. 17–25). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research. Retrieved from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/system/files/ece-democratic-society.pdf
  35. Penetito, W. (2009). The struggle to educate the Maori in New Zealand. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), The Routledge international companion to multicultural education (pp. 288–300). Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Pere, R. (1984). Ako: Concepts and learning in the Māori tradition. Hamilton, New Zealand: Department of Sociology, University of Waikato.Google Scholar
  37. Reedy, T. (2003). Toku rangatiratanga na te mana-matauranga. “Knowledge and power set me free . . . ”. In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whariki: Aotearoa New Zealand's early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (pp. 51–77). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  38. Reedy, T., & Reedy, T. (2013). Te Whāriki: A tapestry for life. Paper presented at the New Zealand conference on early childhood education and care in co-operation with the OECD ECEC network, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  39. Ritchie, J. (2018). A fantastical journey: Reimagining Te Whāriki. Early Childhood Folio, 20(1), 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ritchie, J., & Rau, C. (2008). Whakawhanaungatanga – Partnerships in bicultural development. Retrieved from http://www.tlri.org.nz/tlri-research/research-completed/ece-sector/whakawhanaungatanga%E2%80%94-partnerships-bicultural-development
  41. Soutar, B. (2000). Nurturing mana and tapu - Italian style. Early Education, 22(Autumn), 7–10.Google Scholar
  42. United Nations. (2007). Indigenous peoples. Indigenous voices. Frequently asked questions. Retrieved April 30, 2017., from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/faq_drips_en.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations