Advertisement

A Study on Friction Stir Welding of Al6061-ZrB2 Metal Matrix Composites

  • T. V. ChristyEmail author
  • D. Emmanuel Sam Franklin
  • R. Nelson
  • S. Mohanasundaram
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

Over the past few decades, various attempts have been made in fabricating aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with several ceramic particles for various applications in aircraft, automotive and marine industries. Al6061 reinforced with (10 wt%) ZrB2 composite is a metal matrix composite (MMC) manufactured by the in situ salt–metal reaction. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state welding, overcomes the setbacks associated with conventional fusion welding processes. The primary objective of this work is to adapt FSW process in joining Al6061/ZrB2 with various weld parameters like tool rotational speed (1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600 and 1700 rpm), welding speed (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mm/min) and axial force maintained between 2.5 and 3.5 kN. With the addition of ZrB2, the properties of Al6061 are highly improved. An attempt has been made to study the mechanical properties and the microstructure of Al6061-ZrB2 MMC welded by FSW method. The evaluation of microstructure in the welded joints showed various zones like welded nugget zone (WNZ), thermomechanically affected zone (TAZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ). The weld zone was characterized with homogeneously distributed ZrB2 particles. Samples 3 and 4 showed comparatively good mechanical properties than the remaining samples with different weld parameters.

Keywords

Al6061 alloy Al-ZrB2 metal matrix composite (MMC) Aluminum matrix composite (AMC) Friction stir welding (FSW) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to Centre for Research in Metallurgy, Karunya University, Coimbatore, in providing the facilities to carry out this investigation. The authors are also thankful to Mr. Wilson Antony Raj, Mr. John Kennedy and Mr. Devamanoharan for their assistance offered in executing the above work.

References

  1. 1.
    Akbari, M.K., Baharvandi, H.R., Shirvanimoghaddam, K.: Tensile and fracture behavior of nano/micro TiB2 particle reinforced casting A356 aluminum alloy composites. Mater. Des. 66, 150–161 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sivananth, V., Vijayarangan, S., Rajamanickam, N.: Evaluation of fatigue and impact behavior of titanium carbide reinforced metal matrix composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. 597, 304–313 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xiu, Z., Yang, W., Chen, G., Jiang, L., Mac, K., Wu, G.: Microstructure and tensile properties of Si3N4p/2024Al composite fabricated by pressure infiltration method. Mater. Des. 33, 350–355 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, H.S., Wang, W.X., Li, Y.L., Zhang, P., Nie, H.H., Wu, Q.C.: The design, microstructure and tensile properties of B4C particulate reinforced 6061Al neutron absorber composites. J. Alloy. Compd. 632, 23–29 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hemanth, J.: Abrasive and slurry wear behavior of chilled aluminum alloy (A356) reinforced with fused silica (SiO2p) metal matrix composites [J]. Compos. B 42, 1826–1833 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kang, Y.C., Chan, S.L.I.: Tensile properties of nanometric Al2O3 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites. Mater. Chem. Phys. 85, 438–443 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miracle, D.B.: Metal matrix composites—from science to technological significance. Compos. Sci. Technol. 65, 2526–2540 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dinaharan, I., Murugan, N., Parameswaran, S.: A influence of in situ formed ZrB2 particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 metal matrix composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. 528, 5733–5740 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramesh, C.S., Pramod, S., Keshavamurthy, R.: A study on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al6061–TiB2 in-situ composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. 528, 4125–4132 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramesh, C.S., Keshavamurthy, R.: Slurry erosive wear behaviour of Ni–P coated Si3N4 reinforced Al6061 composites [J]. Mater. Des. 32, 1833–1843 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kalaiselvan, K., Dinaharan, I., Murugan, N.: Characterization of friction stir welded boron carbide particulate reinforced AA6061 aluminum alloy stir cast composite [J]. Mater. Des. 55, 176–182 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramesh, C.S., Anwar Khan, A.R., Ravikumar, N., Savanprabhu, P.: Prediction of wear coefficient of Al6061–TiO2 composites [J]. Wear 259, 602–608 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sonber, J.K., Murthy, T.S.R.C., Sunramanian, C., Kumar, S., Fotedar, R.K., Suri, A.K.: Investigation on synthesis of ZrB2 and development of new composites with HfB2 and TiSi2. Int. J. Refract. Metal. Hard Mater. 29, 21–30 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar, S., Chakraborthy, M., Subramanya Sarma, V., Murty, B.S.: Tensile and wear behaviour of in situ Al–7Si/TiB2 particulate composites [J]. Wear 265, 134–142 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pramod, S.L., Bakshi, S.R., Murty, B.S.: Aluminum based cast in situ composites: a review [J]. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24, 49–113 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, F., Chen, Z., Mao, F., Wang, T., Cao, Z.: TiB2 reinforced aluminum based in situ composites fabricated by stir casting [J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 625, 357–368 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shorowordi, K.M., Laoui, T., Haseeb, A.S.M.A., Celis, J.P.: Microstructure and interface characteristics of B4C, SiC and Al2O3 reinforced Al matrix composites: a comparative study [J]. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 142(3), 738–743 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dinaharan, I., Murugan, N.: Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of stir cast AA6061/ZrB2 in situ composite butt joints. Met. Mater. Int. 18, 135–142 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lean, P.P., Gil, L., Urena, A.: Dissimilar welds between unreinforced AA6082 and AA6092/SiC/25p composite by pulsed-MIG arc welding using unreinforced filler alloys (Al–5Mg and Al–5Si). J. Mater. Process. Technol. 143–144, 846–850 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang, R.Y., Chen, S.C., Huang, J.C.: Electron and laser beam welding of high strain rate superplastic Al 6061/SiC composites. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 32, 2575–2584 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Storjohann, D., Barabash, O.M., Babu, S.S., David, S.A., Sklad, P.S., Bloom, E.E.: Fusion and friction stir welding of aluminum-metal-matrix composites. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 36, 3237–3247 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dinaharan, I., Murugan, N.: Microstructure and some properties of aluminium alloy AA6061 reinforced in situ formed ZrB2 particulate stir cast composite. J. Cast Met. Res. 27(2), 115–121 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ni, D.R., Wang, J.J., Zhou, Z.N., Ma, Z.Y.: Fabrication and mechanical properties of bulk NiTip/Al composites prepared by friction stir processing. J. Alloy. Compd. 586, 368–374 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hashemi, R., Hussain, G.: Wear performance of Al/TiN dispersion strengthened surface composite produced through friction stir process: a comparison of tool geometries and number of passes [J]. Wear 324–325, 45–54 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. V. Christy
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Emmanuel Sam Franklin
    • 1
  • R. Nelson
    • 2
  • S. Mohanasundaram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKarunya Institute of Technology and SciencesCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSri Krishna College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations