On Processing of Ni–WC8Co-based Composite Clads on Austenitic Stainless Steel Through Microwave Energy

  • D. Singh
  • S. KaushalEmail author
  • D. Gupta
  • H. L. Bhowmick
  • V. Jain
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


In the present investigation, composite clads of Ni + 20% WC8Co and Ni + 30% WC8Co were developed on austenitic stainless steel (SS-316) using microwave energy. Experiments trials were carried out inside a domestic microwave oven with a frequency range of 2.45 GHz and variable power level of 180–900 W. The exposure time and power level for developing clads were optimized. The microwave processed clads were further characterized through SEM/EDS, XRD, and measurement of Vicker’s microhardness. Microstructural results revealed that the clads of approximately 0.7 mm thickness were free from any type of interfacial cracks and voids. WC particles were uniformly distributed inside soft Ni matrix. The presence of NiSi, Co3W3C, Fe6W6C, NiW, NiCr, and FeNi3 phases was observed during phase analysis of developed composite clads. Microhardness of the Ni + 20% WC8Co and Ni + 30% WC8Co was found to be 810 ± 75 and 923 ± 65 HV, respectively.


Microwave cladding Composite material Microhardness Characterization 



The authors are grateful to Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, for providing Authors the financial assistance under the project titled “Development of Microwave Processed Cavitation Erosion Resistant Cladding” File no.: EMR/2016/007964.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Singh
    • 1
  • S. Kaushal
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • D. Gupta
    • 1
  • H. L. Bhowmick
    • 1
  • V. Jain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Automobile EngineeringGuljar Group of InstitutesLudhianaIndia

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