Development History of Flap

  • He-Ping ZhengEmail author
  • Yong-Qing Xu
  • Jian Lin
  • De-Qing Hu


Before the 1950s, due to the lack of in-depth studies carried on the cutaneous vasculature, the pedicled random pattern flap was the mainstream in flap surgery; during 1950s–1960s, studies on flap vessels resulted in the advent of muscle flap and axial pattern flap; in 1970s, along with the development of the organ transplants using the microsugical technique, the free flap, musculocutaneous flap and musculoskeletal flap involving with vascular anastomosis were applied in clinical practice; since 1980s, the flourishing and development of microdissection greatly promoted the development of flap surgery, and many achievements were gained in flap surgery, not only in theoretical field, but in the clinical application of relevant technologies. A variety of new types of flaps were developed and employed in surgeries, such as flap with main artery, reverse-flow island flap, fasciocutaneous flap, flap with intermuscular septal vascules, distally pedicled flap, venous flap, subcutaneous vascular plexus flap, veno-neurocutaneous vascular flap and perforator flap. With continuous increase of flap donor sites, the transposition of flap with a vascular pedicle was widely applied in clinical practice.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • He-Ping Zheng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yong-Qing Xu
    • 2
  • Jian Lin
    • 3
  • De-Qing Hu
    • 4
  1. 1.The 900th Hospital of PLAClinical Anatomic CenterFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Orthopaedic DepartmentKunming General Hospital of PLAKunmingChina
  3. 3.Shanghai JiaoTong UniversityXin-hua Hospital (ChongMing)ShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Orthopaedic DepartmentThe First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityFuzhouChina

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